Open the Advanced Search

Common Fig

Ficus carica

Please keep in mind that it is illegal to uproot a plant without the landowner's consent and care should be taken at all times not to damage wild plants. Wild plants should never be picked for pleasure and some plants are protected by law.
For more information please download the BSBI Code of Conduct PDF document.


Plant Profile

Flowering Months:
Moraceae (Mulberry)
Life Cycle:
Maximum Size:
10 metres tall
Walls, wasteland.

Green, no petals
Barely visible. Small and green, later turning into figs. Mainly pollinated by wasps.
Showy pear-shaped fruit, borne solitary, green to brown. The fruit develops within each receptacle and ripens in late summer.
Deciduous. Large broadly ovate alternate leaves, palmate 3 to 7-lobed with toothed margins. The upper leaf surface is dark green and has a texture similar to sandpaper. The lower leaf surface is pale green and smooth. The leaves are arranged spirally along the stems on stalks of up to 5cm.
Other Names:
Adriatic Fig, Edible Fig, Smyrna Fig.
Frequency (UK):

Other Information


Ficus carica is a species of flowering plant in the family Moraceae, also known as the common fig or simply the fig. It is native to the Middle East and western Asia, but it is now grown in many parts of the world for its fruit. The plant is a deciduous shrub or small tree that can reach a height of 20-30 feet.

The fig fruit is a unique structure called a syconium, which is an enlarged, fleshy receptacle that contains many small, inconspicuous flowers. The fig fruit is usually pear-shaped and can be anywhere from 1-4 inches in diameter. The color of the fruit can vary depending on the variety, but it is usually green, yellow, or brown when ripe.

Ficus carica has been cultivated for thousands of years and is known for its sweet, juicy fruit which can be eaten fresh or dried. The dried figs are a good source of dietary fibers, and can be used in baking bread and making sweet delicacies like fig roll. The figs are also rich in minerals and vitamins, and some studies suggest that they may have potential health benefits such as improving blood sugar control.

The common fig tree is considered easy to grow, it does not require much maintenance and can be grown in a wide range of climates and soils. However, it does need protection from frost and freezes and some varieties are not cold hardy. It's also possible to grown fig trees in pots which allows for better control of the climate, but it may not be suitable for large and long-term fruit production.


Figs have been enjoyed for their sweet taste and unique texture for thousands of years, and the Common Fig (Ficus carica) is one of the most well-known varieties of this delicious fruit. In this blog, we will explore the history, growth habits, and health benefits of the Common Fig.

History and Origins

The Common Fig is believed to have originated in the Middle East and Mediterranean region, where it has been cultivated for thousands of years. The ancient Greeks and Romans considered the fig to be a sacred fruit, and it was commonly used in their religious and cultural ceremonies. The fruit was also highly prized for its medicinal properties, and was used to treat a variety of ailments.

Growth Habits

The Common Fig is a deciduous tree or shrub that can grow up to 10 meters tall in the right conditions. It is known for its large, lobed leaves and pear-shaped fruit. The fig fruit is actually a hollow receptacle, with the tiny flowers on the inside. When the flowers are pollinated, they produce small seeds that give the fig its distinctive crunch. Figs are a warm-weather crop and thrive in areas with long, hot summers and mild winters.

Health Benefits

Figs are a rich source of dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. They are low in calories and high in antioxidants, making them an ideal snack for those looking to maintain a healthy diet. The fiber in figs can help regulate digestion and prevent constipation, while the antioxidants can help reduce inflammation in the body.

Figs also contain a high concentration of polyphenols, which have been linked to a lower risk of heart disease, cancer, and other chronic illnesses. Additionally, the potassium in figs can help regulate blood pressure and prevent the onset of hypertension.


The Common Fig is a versatile fruit that can be enjoyed in a variety of ways. It can be eaten fresh or dried, and is often used in baked goods or as a topping for salads and desserts. The fruit can also be processed into jams, jellies, and other preserves. In some cultures, fig leaves are used to wrap food before cooking, imparting a unique flavor to the dish.

Cultivation and Harvesting

Common Figs are relatively easy to grow and can be cultivated in a variety of climates, from hot and dry to cool and humid. They prefer well-draining soil and plenty of sunlight, and can be grown from seed or propagated from cuttings.

The fig tree produces two crops each year: a breba crop, which grows on the previous year's wood, and a main crop, which grows on the current year's wood. The breba crop is less abundant and usually matures in early summer, while the main crop is the more significant harvest and usually ripens in late summer or early fall.

When harvesting Common Figs, it's important to wait until the fruit is fully ripe, as unripe figs can cause stomach upset. Ripe figs will be plump and tender, and will have a sweet, honey-like fragrance. To harvest the fruit, gently twist it off the tree, being careful not to damage the stem or skin.

Once harvested, figs can be eaten fresh, dried, or processed into other products. To dry figs, they are usually laid out in the sun or dehydrated in a low-temperature oven. Dried figs are a popular snack and can be used in a variety of recipes, from baked goods to trail mixes.

Fun Facts about the Common Fig

  • Figs are one of the oldest cultivated fruits in the world, with evidence of cultivation dating back to at least 5,000 years ago.
  • The fig was highly regarded in ancient cultures, and was associated with fertility and abundance. The ancient Greeks even believed that figs were a gift from the gods.
  • The fig tree has a unique pollination process. The tiny flowers inside the fig are pollinated by a type of wasp, which crawls inside the fruit and lays its eggs. As the wasp moves around, it inadvertently pollinates the flowers.
  • Figs are actually not a fruit, but a syconium, which is a type of fleshy receptacle that encloses the flowers and seeds.
  • The sap from the fig tree has been used for medicinal purposes, and is believed to have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties.
  • The common fig is used as a symbol of abundance and prosperity in many cultures around the world, and is often used in art and literature as a metaphor for fertility and regeneration.
  • California is the leading producer of figs in the United States, followed by Texas and Georgia.

In conclusion, the Common Fig is a fascinating and delicious fruit that has a long and rich history. From its unique pollination process to its many health benefits, there's a lot to learn and appreciate about this ancient fruit. Whether enjoyed fresh or dried, the fig is sure to satisfy your taste buds and provide a nutritious snack. So why not add some figs to your next salad, smoothie, or snack? Your body and taste buds will thank you!

Nutritional Value

Figs are low in calories and a good source of fiber, which can help with digestion and promote feelings of fullness. They are also rich in vitamins and minerals, including potassium, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin K. In fact, one medium-sized fig contains about 6% of the recommended daily intake of calcium.

More about Health Benefits

  1. Digestive Health: The fiber in figs can help promote healthy digestion by adding bulk to the stool and promoting regular bowel movements. Figs also contain enzymes that aid in the digestion of proteins and fats.

  2. Heart Health: Figs are a good source of potassium, which is an important mineral for maintaining healthy blood pressure. The fiber in figs can also help lower cholesterol levels, which can reduce the risk of heart disease.

  3. Blood Sugar Control: Figs have a low glycemic index, meaning they do not cause a rapid increase in blood sugar levels. This can be beneficial for people with diabetes or those at risk of developing the disease.

  4. Bone Health: Figs are a good source of calcium, which is important for maintaining healthy bones and teeth. They also contain vitamin K, which plays a role in bone health by helping the body absorb calcium.

  5. Immune System: Figs contain antioxidants, which can help protect the body from free radicals and reduce inflammation. This can help strengthen the immune system and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

In conclusion, the Common Fig is a nutritious and healthy fruit that can provide a range of benefits for the body. From promoting healthy digestion to supporting heart health and immune function, there are many reasons to include figs in your diet. So why not add some fresh or dried figs to your next meal or snack and enjoy their delicious flavor and many health benefits?


Common Fig filmed in Orford, Suffolk on the 26th June 2022.


Please remember to Like and Subscribe to the WildFlowerWeb YouTube channel at

Distribution Map

Reproduced by kind permission of the BSBI.

Click to open an Interactive Map