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Cultivated Flax

Linum usitatissimum

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Plant Profile

Flowering Months:
Linaceae (Flax)
Also in this family:
Life Cycle:
Maximum Size:
150 centimetres tall
Gardens, roadsides, wasteland.

Blue, 5 petals
Soft blue flowers, each measuring from 1.6 to 2.4cm across. The sepals are not as long as the fruit. The flowers live for just a single day. Pollinated by insects.
The fruit is a globular capsule. The flattened, glossy, brown seeds ripen in August and September.
A hairless annual flower with narrow, greyish-green, lance-shaped leaves. The leaves each have 3 parallel veins. Leaves measure up to 4cm long and 3mm wide.
Other Names:
Common Flax, Flax, Linseed.
Frequency (UK):

Similar Species

Other Information


Linum usitatissimum, also known as common flax or linseed, is a species of flowering plant in the family Linaceae. It is native to the Mediterranean region but it is widely cultivated and naturalized in many parts of the world.

Linum usitatissimum is an annual plant that can grow to about 2-3 feet tall and produces blue, pink, or white flowers in the summer. It has narrow, lance-shaped leaves that are about 1-2 inches long. The plant is best known for its seeds, which are an important source of linseed oil and fiber, which is used for making linen fabric.

Linseed oil, which is extracted from the seeds, is used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products, such as paints, varnishes, and soaps. The oil is also used in cooking, particularly in Europe and South Asia, and is a rich source of essential fatty acids. The seeds can also be ground into a meal and used as a food for humans and livestock.

Linen fabric, made from the fibers of the stem of the plant, is highly valued for its strength, durability, and coolness. The fibers are extracted by a process called retting, where the stems are left to soak in water until the fibers separate from the stem. These fibers are then cleaned, combed, and spun into yarn.

Linum usitatissimum is easy to grow and can be propagated by seed. It prefers well-drained soils and full sun and it is hardy to USDA zones 3-10. It is also susceptible to various pests and diseases, particularly root rot if the soil is not well-drained.


Flax, also known as Linum usitatissimum, is an ancient crop that has been cultivated for thousands of years. It is a member of the Linaceae family, and it is grown for both its seeds and its fibers. Flax is a versatile plant that has many uses, from making clothing to providing a source of dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids.

In this blog, we will take a closer look at cultivated flax, its history, cultivation, and uses.

History of Cultivated Flax

Flax is believed to have originated in the Middle East and has been cultivated for over 10,000 years. The ancient Egyptians were known to have grown flax, and it was an important crop in many other civilizations, including those in ancient Greece and Rome. In medieval times, flax was a significant crop in Europe, and it was widely grown for its fibers, which were used to make linen clothing.

Cultivation of Flax

Flax is a hardy annual plant that is grown in cooler regions of the world. It grows best in well-drained, fertile soil, and it requires moderate rainfall. Flax seeds are planted in the spring, and the plant takes approximately 90 to 120 days to mature. The plant reaches a height of 1 to 1.5 meters, and it produces blue flowers that are pollinated by bees.

Flax has two main varieties: one grown for its seeds and the other grown for its fibers. The flax grown for its seeds is known as oilseed flax, and it produces small, brown seeds that are used to make linseed oil and as a source of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet. The flax grown for its fibers is known as fiber flax or linseed, and it produces long, slender stems that are harvested and processed to make linen fabric.

Uses of Cultivated Flax

Flax has many uses, both for its seeds and its fibers. Flax seeds are a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, which are essential for good health. They are also high in dietary fiber, lignans, and protein, making them a nutritious addition to the diet. Flaxseed oil is used in the food industry as a cooking oil, and it is also used in the production of paint and varnish.

Flax fibers are used to make linen fabric, which has been prized for its softness, strength, and durability for thousands of years. Linen is used to make clothing, bedding, and tablecloths, and it is a popular fabric for warm weather because of its breathability and moisture-wicking properties.

In addition to its use in the textile industry, flax fibers are also used to make paper and other products. The plant's stalks and leaves can be used as animal feed and as a source of renewable energy.

Benefits of Consuming Flax Seeds

Flax seeds are packed with nutrients and health benefits. They are a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid that has been shown to reduce inflammation, improve heart health, and support brain function. Flax seeds are also high in lignans, a type of phytoestrogen that has been linked to a reduced risk of breast cancer. Additionally, flax seeds are high in fiber, which can help promote digestive health and lower cholesterol levels.

How to Incorporate Flax Seeds into Your Diet

There are many ways to incorporate flax seeds into your diet. Here are a few suggestions:

  • Add flax seeds to smoothies: You can add a tablespoon of ground flax seeds to your favorite smoothie recipe for a nutritional boost.
  • Use flax seeds as a substitute for eggs: Flax seeds can be used as an egg substitute in baking. To make a flax egg, mix 1 tablespoon of ground flax seeds with 3 tablespoons of water and let it sit for a few minutes to thicken.
  • Sprinkle flax seeds on top of oatmeal or yogurt: A sprinkle of flax seeds adds a nutty flavor and a nutritional boost to your breakfast.
  • Use flaxseed oil in salad dressings: Flaxseed oil has a mild, nutty flavor and is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids. It can be used as a substitute for other oils in salad dressings.

Cultivated flax is an ancient crop that has been grown for thousands of years for its seeds and fibers. Flax seeds are a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, and lignans, making them a nutritious addition to the diet. Flax fibers are used to make linen fabric and other products, and the plant is also a source of renewable energy and animal feed. With its many uses and health benefits, flax is sure to remain an important crop in the years to come.

Potential Side Effects of Consuming Flax Seeds

While flax seeds are generally safe for most people to consume, there are some potential side effects to be aware of. Flax seeds are high in fiber, and consuming too much fiber too quickly can cause digestive discomfort, such as bloating and gas. It is recommended to start with a small amount of flax seeds, such as a teaspoon per day, and gradually increase the amount over time.

Flax seeds are also high in phytic acid, which can bind to minerals in the body and make them less available for absorption. This can be a concern for individuals who rely on a plant-based diet for their mineral intake. To reduce the amount of phytic acid in flax seeds, you can soak or sprout them before consuming.

Additionally, some individuals may be allergic to flax seeds. Symptoms of a flax seed allergy may include hives, itching, and difficulty breathing. If you experience any adverse reactions after consuming flax seeds, discontinue use and consult with a healthcare provider.


Cultivated flax, Linum usitatissimum, is a versatile crop with many uses, including as a source of seeds for omega-3 fatty acids and dietary fiber, and as a source of fibers for linen fabric and other products. Flax seeds are packed with nutrients and health benefits, but they may also cause digestive discomfort in some individuals and may be a concern for those who rely on a plant-based diet for their mineral intake. As with any dietary supplement, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before adding flax seeds to your diet, especially if you have any underlying health conditions.

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