Habitat: Cliffs

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Showing 1-25 of 54 records

Common Barberry

Flower: Hanging yellow flowers. Insect-pollinated. Fruit: Red, globular berries. The seeds ripen in September and October. Leaves: Deciduous shrub whose leaves appear from March to November. The leaves are simple, oval and spiny-toothed.

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English Bluebell

Flower: Azure blue and bell-shaped, forming one-sided spikes that droop at the tip. Each flower consists of 6 down-turned lobes. Sometimes the flowers are white. Fruit: Round seed pods develop after the flowers, eventually drying out and becoming brown. Inside the seed pods are many tiny black seeds. Leaves: Long, narrow leaves, no more than half an inch wide. The Spanish Bluebell (Hyacinthoides hispanica) has broader leaves than the English Bluebell.

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Red Campion

Flower: 5 rose-pink notched petals, up to 2.5cm. Flowers range in colour from dark red to pale pink depending on geographic location. Fruit: An ovoid capsule with 10 curved back teeth after becoming ripe. The capsule contains numerous seeds. Leaves: The dark green leaves are untoothed and appear in opposite pairs. They are lanceolate, pointed and with long winged stalks.

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Sea Campion

Flower: 5 white overlapping petals with broader sepals and often solitary, up to 2.5cm. Sometimes tinged slightly pink. Fruit: A capsule with down-turned teeth. Leaves: Dark green, smooth and waxy leaves, forming a carpet over the ground. Arranged in opposite pairs along the stem.

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Wild Carrot

Flower: Our only white umbellifer with forked bracts emerging from beneath the flower. Umbel up to 7cm, folding inwards while in fruit. Often with a red flower in the centre. Fruit: The fruit is a distinctive cup-shaped, hooked and spiny umbel. The fruit can cling to the fur of passing animals and clothing, thus scattering the seeds far and wide to new locations. Leaves: The leaves are feathery; bi-pinnate or tri-pinnate.

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Lesser Centaury

Flower: Similar looking to Common Centaury (Centaurium erythraea). The flowers are slightly more red (occasionally white), the petals are smaller and narrower. Lesser Centaury flowers are also longer stalked.... Fruit: A two-sectioned seed capsule. Leaves: Pointed, oval leaves. Basal rosette. More slender and open than Common Centaury. Most common in Southern England. Absent from Scotland.

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Hollyberry Cotoneaster

Flower: Clusters of small pale pink flowers. Up to 20 flowers per cluster. The flowers may look a deeper shade of pink while still in bud. The flowers have white anthers. Fruit: Clusters of round, stalked, bright red berries appear from August to November (UK). The slightly square-shaped berries reach up to 8mm in diameter and contain 5 seeds (and sometimes but rarely 4). Up ... Leaves: Simple, oval, broadly-lanceolate, pointed leaves, growing alternately along the stems. The dark green leaves turn red and orange in autumn before falling. This plant is similar-looking to Bullate Coto...

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Entire-leaved Cotoneaster

Flower: Up to 15mm across with spreading petals. The anthers are red to purple in colour. Approximately 20 stamens per flower. Fruit: The deep red berries are globular and contain 2 stones each. Up to 1cm across. In fruit from October to December. Bird-sown. Leaves: A sprawling shrub with tiny oblong leaves, up to 1.5cm long. The dark green, glossy leaves have inrolled margins and are blunt-tipped. A common garden species which has become widely naturalised.

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Grey-headed Hawkweed

Flower: Yellow dandelion-like flowers. Fruit: Unbeaked fruit with a feathery light brown pappus. Leaves: Alternate leaves with distinctive, large-toothed edges. Each forward-pointing tooth is widely spaced and ends in a sharp point.

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Mouse-ear Hawkweed

Flower: Small lemon yellow solitary dandelion-like flowers, reddish beneath and up to 3cm wide. Fruit: An achene with a pappus, up to 3mm long. Maturing to a purplish black colour. Leaves: Basal rosette of untoothed elliptical leaves. The undersides of the leaves are covered in soft white downy hairs.

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Irish Ivy

Flower: Small umbels of greenish-white flowers. Fruit: Bluish black berries. Leaves: An evergreen climber with 5-lobed, dark green, oval leaves. The leaves are untoothed and not usually marbled, unlike those of Common Ivy (Hedera helix). Irish Ivy has larger leaves than Common Ivy. Th...

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Jacob's Ladder

Flower: Bluish-purple and white at the base, in spikes. Individual flowers up to 3cm. 5 petals. Fruit: A capsule. Leaves: The name of this plant is derived from the shape of it's ladder-like, pinnate leaves. The leaves are arranged alternate along the stems.

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Black Knapweed

Flower: Purple and brush-like with brownish-black bracts, up to 4cm. Sometimes rayed and other times not. Fruit: A flattish, elliptical achene with short bristly hairs at the end. Leaves: Pale green, alternate, lanceolate leaves. The leaves also have sparsely toothed margins and short grey hairs.

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Greater Knapweed

Flower: Majestic-looking. Purple and brush-like with dull green bracts and brownish-black appendages, up to 5cm. Always rayed. Fruit: Flattened achene with short greyish hairs. Leaves: Dark green, deeply lobed, alternate, short-stalked. The lobes of the leaves are narrow and irregular.

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Alpine Lady's-mantle

Flower: Tiny petalless flowers clustered together loosely with 4 yellowish-green sepals and yellow anthers. Fruit: A small achene (type of one-seeded dry fruit that doesn't split open to release its fruit). Leaves: The divided leaves have between 5 and 7 leaflets. The leaflets are narrow and well-separated. Their margins have distinctive silvery-white borders. The tips of the leaflets are toothed.

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Wild Leek

Flower: Large globular lilac, purplish or whitish flowerheads with yellow anthers, up to 10cm wide. Fruit: A globular to ovoid capsule containing anything up to 6 seeds, reaching 4mm across. Leaves: Long, tightly wrapped, linear leaves.

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Tyneside Leopardplant

Flower: The inflorescence is a spike of many yellow flowers. Pollinated by insects. Fruit: The fruit is a cylindrical, hairless achene (seed). Leaves: A clump-forming perennial. The dark green leaves are palmate and have sharp, jagged lobes. The stems are black. Rarely found growing wild in the UK. Established by the River Tyne in Northumberland.

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Field Madder

Flower: Tiny pale pink, 4 petals, surrounded by leaf-like bracts. Fruit: Egg-shaped, up to 3mm long, with 2 lobes that separate into oblong and slightly curved nutlets upon ripening. Leaves: The leaves are in whorls of 4 to 6 along the stems. Each leaf is linear and pointed, up to 8mm long.

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Lesser Meadow-rue

Flower: Clusters of tiny, pale yellow, nodding flowers, sometimes tinged purple. Long yellow stamens, about 3mm long. 4 or 5, yellowish-green sepals. Insect and wind pollinated. Fruit: A stalkless, sharply-pointed, ridged and winged seed (achene). Leaves: Green, smooth and hairless foliage. 3 to 4-pinnate leaves. The majority of leaflets are at least as long as broad. The leaves are arranged alternately along both sides of the stems. The erect stems ar...

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Great Mullein

Flower: 5 bright yellow petals, club-shaped stigma. 3 woolly white stamens and 2 hairless. Flowers to 3cm wide. Fruit: An ovoid capsule, splitting open to release numerous seeds. Leaves: Greyish-green, softly downy, thick and woolly, alternate leaves. The leaves can be as large as 50cm in length.

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Pyramidal Orchid

Flower: Deep pink or purplish flowers in a distinctively dense pyramid-shaped flower spike. Individual flowers are small and have a long tubular spur (about 1.5cm long). Sometimes white flowered specimens can... Fruit: The fruit is a capsule which produces many dust-like seeds. The seeds ripen in August. Leaves: A tuberous perennial with narrow, lance-shaped, unspotted leaves.

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Bristly Oxtongue

Flower: Pale yellow dandelion-like flowers in clusters with bracts spreading outwards a little. Fruit: Small, pale brown and with slender parachute-like tufts of soft white hair coming out from its end. Leaves: Alternate leaves, in a rosette. The leaves are bristly and covered in many small raised bumps, almost looking as if it has some kind of disease. Each bump has a hooked hair emerging from it.

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Garden Parsley

Flower: Yellowish-green flowers, appearing inside 5cm wide umbels. The lower bracts are sometimes lobed. Insect pollinated. Fruit: Globular fruit. The seeds ripen from July to September. Leaves: Bright green, shiny, crisp, 2 to 3-pinnate leaves, later fading to yellow. Biennial.

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Knotted Pearlwort

Flower: 5 unnotched white petals reaching up to 1cm across. Our largest flowered Pearlwort in the UK. Fruit: Dull yellow, egg-shaped capsule. 4 or 5 valves, usually 5. Leaves: Basal rosette and stem leaves are both present. The stalkless stem leaves are positioned in opposite pairs and get smaller towards the top. The linear leaves are untoothed and thread-like, smooth and ...

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Pellitory-of-the-wall

Flower: Stalkless flowers emerging from the bases of the leaves are green and tiny with creamy white anthers. Fruit: Small elliptical achenes, each containing 1 seed. Leaves: Slightly glossy, fleshy, narrowly oval leaves. The stalked leaves run alternate along their stems. The leaves can grow up to 8cm long. Although the entire plant is covered in dense, stiff hairs, the l...

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