Habitat: Heathland

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Allseed

Flower: The small white flowers are short-stalked and appear inside branched clusters. The 4 petals are about as long as the toothed sepals. Fruit: The fruit is a globular seed capsule. Leaves: A well-branched annual with very small, pointed oval leaves. The leaves are in opposite pairs along the stems. Greyish-green, stiff, thread-like, forked, reddish stems.

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Mountain Ash

Flower: White with cream-coloured anthers. Fruit: Tight clusters of red berries. Leaves: Deciduous. Similar to Common Ash leaves. Pinnate with toothed leaflets.

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Garden Asparagus

Flower: Bell-shaped, pale green or yellowish flowers. Pollinated by bees. Fruit: A small, red berry, up to 1cm across. The seeds ripen in September and October. Leaves: A perennial herb with an erect, single stem. The shoots are sometimes known as 'spears'.

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Aspen

Flower: Male and female catkins are green, and are borne on different trees. Both male and female catkins look alike, however later on the male catkins become dangly and the females remain firm. Fruit: Long hanging conical capsules develop on the catkins. Leaves: Deciduous. The stalked leaves of the Aspen are heart-shaped with wavy edges and have whitish undersides. Their shape causes them to shiver and tremble in the wind, giving the tree a distinctive quiver...

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European Bog Asphodel

Flower: Deep yellow spike of flowers, often tinged orange. Flowers are star-like with 6 petals and orange anthers. Fruit: Egg-shaped and bright orange. Leaves: Long and slender, grass-like.

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Goldilocks Aster

Flower: Loose, erect clusters of bright golden yellow flowers. They measure no larger than 1.8cm across. The yellow stigmas are prominent. Very late flowering. Fruit: The fruit is an achene. An achene is a type of dry, one-seeded fruit. Leaves: Numerous, linear, lance-shaped leaves. Unlike the similar looking Golden Samphire (Inula crithmoides), the leaves are not fleshy.

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Trailing Azalea

Flower: Solitary pink bell-shaped flowers with conjoined petals. 5 dark red sepals. 5 stamens. Fruit: A globular, 4-sectioned capsule. 3 to 4mm in size. Leaves: An evergreen undershrub with numerous, dark green, tiny but thick leaves. The leaves have inrolled margins. The undersides of the leaves are white and downy. The leaves reach 8mm in length. Perennial.

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Yellow Azalea

Flower: Funnel-shaped, bright yellow flowers, up to 5cm across. Flowers appear together in dense clusters of 5 to 25. Pollinated by insects. Fruit: A dry, woody seed capsule, containing several minute seeds. Leaves: A bushy deciduous shrub whose leaves are oblong and turn red, purple or orange in autumn. Commonly seen as a garden plant in the British Isles but sometimes seen bird-sown in woods and on moorland. Th...

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Yellow Bartsia

Flower: The inflorescence is a leafy spike of flowers. Each flower has got a long 3-lobed lower lip. Fruit: A hairy, egg-shaped capsule. About 1cm long. Leaves: An annual stiff plant covered in sticky, glandular hairs. The broadly lanceolate leaves appear together in opposite pairs. The hairy leaves are toothed and unstalked.

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Wild Basil

Flower: The lilac, mauve, purple or pink flowers are in whorls and are found mostly at the top of the stems. 2-lipped. 4 or 5 lobed. Insect-pollinated. Fruit: A one-seeded nutlet. The seeds ripen in August and September. Leaves: Pointed, oval and slightly blunt-toothed, apple green leaves with prominent curved veins. Leaves are either stalkless or short-stalked. Square stems. A hairy perennial.

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White Beak-sedge

Flower: White spikelets, appearing in flat clusters. Clusters measure about 1 inch (2.5cm) across. Clusters are positioned at the top of erect stalks, each with a leaf-like bract below it. Spikelets within th... Fruit: Flower spikelets turn brown on maturing and each produces 1 or 2 flattened, oval seeds. Surrounding the base of the fruit are several hooked bristles. Leaves: Grows in tight clumps, with 3-angled stems at the tips but flat at their bases. The hairless leaves are alternately arranged along the stems. Perennial.

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Brown Beak-sedge

Flower: Reddish-brown spikelets. The upper leaf-like bracts extend beyond the head of the flowers. Fruit: An beaked achene (nutlet). Single-seeded. Leaves: Narrow, thread-like leaves. Perennial, growing on peaty soils.

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Arctic Bearberry

Flower: Small white, bell-shaped flowers. Flowers are stalked. 5 green sepals and 5 fused petals.. 10 stamens. Pollinated by bees. Fruit: The fruit is a globular black berry, up to 12mm in diameter. Fruits are green initially, later turning red and then finally black. Leaves: Small oval, pointed leaves with finely toothed margins.

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Heath Bedstraw

Flower: Tiny, white, forming dense clusters, 4 petals. Fruit: Nutlets are brown and ovoid, hairless and with tiny dome-shaped warts. Leaves: Sharply pointed. Edges have minute forward pointing prickles. In whorls of 5-8 along the main stem.

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Ivy-leaved Bellflower

Flower: Pale blue, solitary, bell-shaped flowers, no larger than 1cm wide. The flower stalks are long (up to 4cm) and thread-like. The flowers are sometimes nodding. Fruit: The fruit is a capsule, about 3mm long. Leaves: A creeping, hairless, patch-forming perennial flower with pale green leaves. The leaves are variable in shape, some are kidney-shaped, some rounded and some are similar in shape to ivy leaves (but muc...

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Velvet Bent

Flower: Purplish spikelets and awned florets. Spikelets measure between 2 and 2.5mm in length. Fruit: The fruit is a caryopsis. A type of dry, one-seeded fruit. Leaves: The leaves are very narrow. They each have a jagged, long, pointed ligule.

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Brown Bent

Flower: Reddish-purple flowers. Solitary, elliptical spikelets, up to 3.5mm long. Similar to Velvet Bent (Agrostis canina) but the flowers of Brown Bent are more densely packed. Fruit: The fruits of grasses are called caryopses. They are a kind of one-seeded, dry fruit. Leaves: A perennial grass species. Linear, flat leaf blades, up to 3mm wide. Blunt ligules. The similar looking Velvet Bent has sharper ligules.

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Dense Silky Bent

Flower: Purplish-red or green flower spikelets. The inflorescence is narrower than that of the similar looking Loose Silky Bent Grass (Apera spica-venti). Fruit: The fruit is a caryopsis. Leaves: An annual grass. Linear leaves. Similar to Loose Silky Bent but with narrower leaves and a more pointed ligule.

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Bristle Bent

Flower: Yellowish-green flower spikelets. Fruit: The fruit is a caryopsis, typical of other grass species. Leaves: A conspicuously densely tufted grass with linear, hair-like leaves. The leaves are greyish. Perennial.

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Creeping Bent

Flower: Clusters of flower spikelets, usually awned. Spikelets have only one floret. Often purplish. Similar in appearance to Common Bent (Agrostis capillaris) but its flowerheads are less open. Wind pollinat... Fruit: A brown caryopsis (a type of dry one-seeded fruit). Leaves: A perennial grass with creeping runners. Flat leaves with long pointed ligules. Abundant all over the British Isles.

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Common Bent

Flower: Each plant has hundreds of tiny spikelets with only one flower per spikelet. Fruit: Seed heads are in open, loose clusters. Leaves: Very short grass despite often being called the tallest of the Bent species. Very flat, thin and ribbed leaves which taper to a point. Hairless.

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Betony

Flower: Dense pink to purple flower spike. Fruit: After the flowers have died off, each flower leaves behind four 3-sided, smooth, brown nutlets at the bottom of the calyx. Leaves: Bluntly toothed, oval, stalked leaves, mostly in basal rosettes. Some paired leaves along the stem.

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Bilberry

Flower: One or two reddish-pink bell-shaped flowers on short stalks at leaf bases. Fruit: Small, round, dark blue, flat-topped berries. No larger than 1cm in diameter. Leaves: Small, light green and short-stalked oval to elliptical leaves with netted veins. Leaf margins are finely serrated.

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Bog Bilberry

Flower: Clusters of pendulous pale pink, bell-shaped flowers. Bog Bilberry is a shy flowerer and flowers appear together in clusters of up to 4. Insect pollinated. Fruit: The fruit is a bluish-black berry. Fruits are bluer than those of the similar looking Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). 5 to 8mm in diameter. Leaves: A dwarf shrub with bluish-green, oval leaves, similar to those of Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) but rounder and without toothed margins. The leaves are a more bluish-green and are paler beneath.

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Downy Birch

Flower: Male and female catkins appear on the same tree. Erect female catkins are shorter and green. Male catkins hang loosely in groups of 2-4. Often hybridizes with Silver Birch making identification tricky. Fruit: Small dry one-sided winged fruits, called 'achenes'. Leaves: Deciduous. Ovate, pointed and with serrated margins. Light green in spring, darkening and then turning yellow or orange in autumn. Leaves are often hairy underneath.

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