Habitat: Sea cliffs

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Showing 1-25 of 45 records

Alexanders

Flower: Yellow-green umbel. Fruit: Globular, ridged, turning black on ripening. Leaves: Yellowish-green bluntly toothed, divided and glossy.

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Sea Aster

Flower: Pale blue/purple, sometimes white or yellow. The flower consists of 5 stamens and 2 carpels. Fruit: A flattened, hairy yellow-brown fruit. Leaves: A biennial or perennial plant with thin, dark green leaves. The leaves have a prominent central vein. Similar-looking to a Michaelmas Daisy.

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Sea Beet

Flower: Slender green spike of tiny petalless flowers, sometimes turning red. Fruit: The flowers form hard clusters at their bases which then turn into the multi-seeded fruit. Leaves: Dark green, wavy, leathery and shiny. The lower leaves are larger, have very curly edges and are triangular in shape. The upper leaves are narrower than the lower.

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Blackthorn

Flower: White, 5 petals, numerous stamens containing gold pollen. Flowers appear before the leaves emerge. Fruit: Like a diminutive plum with a bluish-black waxy coating. Contains a large stone in the centre. The fruit are called 'sloes'. Leaves: Short-stalked, small and slender, pointed oval leaves, alternate and finely toothed. Greyish green beneath with hairy veins.

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Sea Buckthorn

Flower: Tiny green and without petals, appearing along the stems. Fruit: An abundance of orange berries cover the tree. Leaves: Deciduous. Silvery leaves that are linear and untoothed.

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Sea Campion

Flower: 5 white overlapping petals with broader sepals and often solitary, up to 2.5cm. Sometimes tinged slightly pink. Fruit: A capsule with down-turned teeth. Leaves: Dark green, smooth and waxy leaves, forming a carpet over the ground. Arranged in opposite pairs along the stem.

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Fox and Cubs

Flower: One of very few orange flowers in our countryside. Flowers are borne in clusters, paler in their centres. Attracts many insects, such as hoverflies. Fruit: An achene, 3mm long and 1mm wide. Leaves: Bluish-green lanceolate basal leaves. Just a few leaves exist along the stems. The leaves are covered in short, dark, bristly hairs. In fact the entire plant is covered in these hairs.

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Crow Garlic

Flower: The stalked flowers usually consist of dark purple bulbils. Unlike the flowers of Sand Leek (Allium scorodoprasum), the stamens protrude from the flowers and the spathe only has a single valve. Insect... Fruit: A fruit capsule. The seeds ripen in either August or September. Leaves: The leaves are waxy, tubular, hollow, linear and measure up to 4mm thick. Throughout the British Isles, Crow Garlic is most common in southern England. Perennial.

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Western Gorse

Flower: Clusters of yellow pea-like flowers. Smaller and narrower than Common Gorse flowers, up to 2cm long. Fruit: Dark brown oval, pointed seed pods, bursting open in spring. Leaves: An evergreen prickly shrub. The spiny leaves are a darker green and less furrowed than the similar looking Common Gorse.

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Dyer's Greenweed

Flower: Rich yellow pea-like flowers forming a spike. Fruit: A narrow and long shiny pod, not usually hairy but can sometimes be slightly downy. Similar-looking to a green bean pod. Leaves: Green, elliptical and pointed. About 1 inch long.

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Heath Groundsel

Flower: The yellow flowerheads are stalked, up to 5mm wide. The ray florets curl backwards, usually unlike those of the similar-looking shorter plant, Common Groundsel. The bracts are narrow and purple-tipped... Fruit: Ridged, brown and cylindrical achene with a pappus, up to 1 inch long. Leaves: An annual flower with narrowly lanceolate leaves and more deeply and irregular lobes than Common Groundsel. The leaves are alternate and short-stalked, however the upper leaves are stalkless. The leaf...

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Harebell

Flower: Nodding pale blue bell-shaped flowers on long stalks. Individual flowers up to 2cm in length. Fruit: A small nodding capsule, filled with minute seeds, up to 8mm long. Leaves: The long-stalked basal leaves are roundish, or kidney-shaped and have large rounded teeth which have normally wilted by flowering time. The leaves become shorter stalked as they go up the stem. The al...

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Great Horsetail

Flower: Flowerless. Horsetails reproduce by spores. Fruit: A blunt cone on the tip of the fertile stem, up to 8cm long, ripening in April. Leaves: The erect off-white coloured stems are brittle and smooth. The leaf-like branches off the main stem are up to 20cm long. There are between 20 and 40 of these branches per node along the stem.

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Hottentot-fig

Flower: Large and many-petalled daisy-like flower, later fading to pink-purple. Yellow centre but not always. Up to 10cm wide. Fruit: Fig-like fruits but not tasting like fig at all. They rarely ripen in the UK. Leaves: 3-sided succulent leaves with pointed tips, carpeting the surface of the ground if left to grow.

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Stinking Iris

Flower: Dull greyish-purple flowers, occasionally yellow. Up to 7cm across. Pollinated by bees. Fruit: The seed pods burst open to reveal its large bright orange / red seeds. The fruit are very conspicuous in autumn and winter. The seeds ripen between October and February. Leaves: Broad, dark green, linear leaves. Up to 25mm wide. A perennial which is common in central and southern England. It's fairly uncommon everywhere else in the British Isles.

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Common Juniper

Flower: Small male and female yellow flowers which appear on separate shrubs. Fruit: The fruit is a berry, although not a true berry. Strictly speaking, the dark bluish-purple berries are actually cones. The fruit take up to 2 years to ripen and grow up to 8mm in diameter. Leaves: An evergreen shrub. Its stiff, tightly packed needles grow up to 1cm in length. Each needle has a broad silver line running along the inside.

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Tyneside Leopardplant

Flower: The inflorescence is a spike of many yellow flowers. Pollinated by insects. Fruit: The fruit is a cylindrical, hairless achene (seed). Leaves: A clump-forming perennial. The dark green leaves are palmate and have sharp, jagged lobes. The stems are black. Rarely found growing wild in the UK. Established by the River Tyne in Northumberland.

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Wild Madder

Flower: Small, pale yellowish-green, 5 petals, in clusters. Fruit: A small fleshy green berry, changing to black when ripe. Up to 5mm in diameter. Leaves: The dark green leaves are in whorls of 4 to 6, usually 6. Shiny, leathery, prickly and linear.

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Tree Mallow

Flower: Flowers grow in clusters of 2 to 7 and are purplish-pink with purple veins and a dark centre. 5 notched petals. Flowers reach a maximum of 4cm across. Fruit: A disc-shaped nutlet. Leaves: Soft, downy, stalked, Ivy-shaped leaves with 5 to 7 lobes, up to 20cm across. The branches of Tree Mallow are woody and this is the only woody UK Mallow species.

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Montbretia

Flower: Bright orange-red flowers on an unbranched one-sided spike. 6 petal-lobes on a widening tube. Fruit: Green capsules with 3 lobes. They turn brown as they ripen. Leaves: Upright, sword-shaped, unbranched leaves. Grass-like with pointed tips and bright green. Not hairy.

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Black Mustard

Flower: The yellow flowers have half-spreading sepals. Up to 15mm wide. 6 stamens. Pollinated by bees and flies. Fruit: 4-sided seed pods with a short, thin, slender and seedless beak. The seeds are dark brown and ripen from July to September. Leaves: An annual flower with untoothed, bluish-green leaves. The lower leaves are pinnately lobed and the upper leaves are lanceolate. Alternate and stalked. Common in England except the far north. Unusual e...

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Pyramidal Orchid

Flower: Deep pink or purplish flowers in a distinctively dense pyramid-shaped flower spike. Individual flowers are small and have a long tubular spur (about 1.5cm long). Sometimes white flowered specimens can... Fruit: The fruit is a capsule which produces many dust-like seeds. The seeds ripen in August. Leaves: A tuberous perennial with narrow, lance-shaped, unspotted leaves.

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Garden Parsley

Flower: Yellowish-green flowers, appearing inside 5cm wide umbels. The lower bracts are sometimes lobed. Insect pollinated. Fruit: Globular fruit. The seeds ripen from July to September. Leaves: Bright green, shiny, crisp, 2 to 3-pinnate leaves, later fading to yellow. Biennial.

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Pellitory-of-the-wall

Flower: Stalkless flowers emerging from the bases of the leaves are green and tiny with creamy white anthers. Fruit: Small elliptical achenes, each containing 1 seed. Leaves: Slightly glossy, fleshy, narrowly oval leaves. The stalked leaves run alternate along their stems. The leaves can grow up to 8cm long. Although the entire plant is covered in dense, stiff hairs, the l...

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Scarlet Pimpernel

Flower: 5 petals fringed with hairs. Despite the name, the flowers are orange and not scarlet red. Fruit: A brown, round fruit capsule which contains many seeds. Ripens from August to October. Up to 6mm across. Leaves: The leaves are stalkless and grow in opposite pairs along the stems. They are oval-elliptical with pointed tips. The leaf margins are not toothed. The undersides of the leaves are black-dotted and hav...

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