Habitat: Ditches

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Showing 1-25 of 81 records

Marsh Arrowgrass

Flower: A flower spike. The green flowers have purple edges. Individual flowers are up to 3mm wide. Flowers have 3 petals and 6 stamens. Fruit: Narrow, erect and arrow-like. Leaves: Long and grass-like leaves with deep grooves.

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Great Burnet

Flower: Oval burgundy-coloured flower heads on long stalks. Fruit: An achene which is a small one seeded dry nut. Leaves: Alternate, long-stalked, compound leaves with up to 7 pairs of oval, stalked and toothed leaflets.

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Meadow Buttercup

Flower: 5 glossy yellow petals on furrowed stalks, up to 2.5cm wide and with spreading sepals. Fruit: A cluster of achenes, no larger than half a centimetre across. Leaves: The palmate leaves are variable but have 3 to 7 deeply cut lobes. The end lobe is unstalked.

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Coltsfoot

Flower: Solitary with bright yellow disc and ray florets, up to 1.5cm. The flowers are borne on long, scaly stems which rise straight from the ground. The undersides of the flower are covered in white woolly ... Fruit: A conspicuous dandelion-like, white pappus. Leaves: The leaves are round, heart-shaped or polygonal. The flowers die back before the emergence of the first leaves.

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Common Water Crowfoot

Flower: Solitary flower with 5 white petals, up to 2cm. Fruit: Roundish-oval seed head located in the centre of the flower. Leaves: Leaves are either floating, submerged, or both. The floating leaves are deep-lobed, kidney-shaped and 3-lobed with the side lobes being wider than the central lobe. The submerged leaves are thread-lik...

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Cuckooflower

Flower: 4 petals, clustered, pale to dark lilac, seldom white, up to 2cm. Fruit: A long elongated dry capsule which eventually rolls up and explodes to disperse its many seeds. Leaves: A basal rosette of long-stalked leaves are present. The short-stalked stem leaves are alternate and pinnate. The 1 to 7 pairs of opposite leaflets and 1 terminal leaflet are all separated wide apart.

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Dame's-violet

Flower: Very variable in colour ranging from purple, lilac and white, 4 petals, up to 2cm across. Similar-looking flower to Phlox, but Phlox has 5 petals and not 4. Fruit: Slender, elongated, cylindrical pods, each up to 4 inches long. They emerge outwards from the main stem and then curves upwards. Each pod contains a single row of seeds. Leaves: Lanceolate, mostly stalkless with toothed margins, up to 5 inches long. The base of the leaf is rounded and leaf tip tapers into a point.

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White Dead-nettle

Flower: The stalkless white flowers grow in whorls from the axils of the upper leaves, up to 2.5cm wide. Fruit: Black nutlets. Leaves: Nettle-like leaves. Stalkless, opposite, tips are pointed, arrow-shaped and toothed. Dead-nettles are not Nettles at all; they belong to a different family of plants. Their hairs do not sting, unlike ...

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Broad-leaved Dock

Flower: Triangular to oblong tepals. Growing in loose green spikes that are leafy at their base. Flowers and whole plant turning rusty red by Autumn. Fruit: A 3-winged triangular fruit with 3 to 5 teeth on the upper part and a round, swollen wart. Leaves: Large, oblong, cabbage-like. The basal leaves are broad and heart-shaped with wavy margins.

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Curled Dock

Flower: Oval flattened green flowers in dense leafless spikes that do not spread outwards from the main stem. Fruit: Dark brown, round, winged seeds with oval warts. The wings do not have teeth, as is the case with Broad-leaved Dock. Leaves: Long, narrow and with curly edges. Up to 25cm in length. Curled Dock is named for it's curly leaf margins.

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Wych Elm

Flower: Tuft of red stamens appearing on the twigs long before the leaves appear. Wind pollinated. Fruit: A winged fruit, pale green and with a notched end. Each winged fruit contains a single seed in its centre. The winged fruit are known as 'samara's' and reach a maximum of 1cm across. The samara's turn... Leaves: A deciduous shrub or tree. Alternate and oval leaves with pointed tips. Dark green and sharp-pointed serrations around the margins of the leaves. The Wych Elm has larger leaves than those of other Elm...

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Hart's-tongue Fern

Flower: No flowers. Ferns reproduce by spores. Fruit: Spores appear in conspicuous stripes on the underside of fronds. Leaves: Evergreen. Grows in clumps. Long, glossy tongue-shaped fronds with pointed tips. The 'scolopendrium' part of the botanical name means 'centipede' and comes from the markings on the underside of the fr...

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Water Figwort

Flower: Brighter than other Figwort species and sepals with pale edges. The small flowers are reddish-brown, on square stems. Fruit: Green and globular capsules, tapering into a sharp point. Leaves: Leaves appear in opposite pairs another along the square-stalked, erect stem. The leaves are round and have round-toothed margins. They become smaller towards the top of the plant. Sometimes the leave...

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Common Fleabane

Flower: Golden yellow daisy-like flowerheads upto 3cm across, flat-topped. 40-100 disc florets and 20-30 ray florets. Fruit: Dry, 1-seeded. Leaves: Silvery green leaves. Narrow, pointed, widest at the base, up to 8cm long. The alternate leaves are covered in a white down. The upper leaves look wrinkly.

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Water Forget-me-not

Flower: Clustered, pink flower buds, later becoming sky blue. 5 petals with yellow and white centres. Fruit: Small, 4-parted, egg-shaped, shiny black nutlets. Up to 2mm long. Leaves: Alternate, toothless leaves with pointed tips. The lowest leaves are the broadest and the upper leaves are more linear. The leaves are covered in short appressed hairs.

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Smooth Meadow Grass

Flower: 3-5 flowers per spikelet and crowded at the ends of the stem. Fruit: A dry, one-sided seed (caryopsis). Leaves: Dull green, narrow, wiry leaves, spreading outwards at the base. Blunt-tipped.

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Gypsywort

Flower: White, purple-dotted and appearing in whorls from the bases of the upper leaves. 4 petals. Fruit: A dry fruit (schizocarp) in 4 parts. Leaves: Oval leaves in opposite pairs along the erect stem. The leaves are mostly stalked and have deeply serrated margins. The leaves sometimes turn red or purple in autumn.

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Hemlock

Flower: White umbels to 6cm wide with small bracts underneath. Fruit: Dark browns small, smooth, ridged and flattened capsule. Each fruit contains two seeds. Up to 3mm in length. Leaves: Bipinnate, hairy, fern-like leaves. Triangular, up to 20 inches (50cm) long.

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Common Hogweed

Flower: Large white umbels to 20cm across, no lower bracts. Sometimes pink, less often purple and rarely greenish-white. Fruit: A dark streaked, heart-shaped, flattened, oval wing called a schizocarp (a type of dry fruit that splits open upon ripening). Leaves: Alternate, compound leaves. 1 to 3 pinnate with very broad toothed leaflets.

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Giant Hogweed

Flower: Enormous white umbel spreading to 1m wide. Fruit: Green, dry, oval to elliptical fruit, up to 1cm across. The fruit later turns brown. Leaves: Very large and deeply lobed with jagged teeth. The leaves are divided into 3 parts and can be as large as 1 metre across.

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Field Horsetail

Flower: Flowerless. Horsetails reproduce by spores. Fruit: A blunt cone on the tip of the fertile stem in spring. The cone withers away after it has released its white spores. Leaves: The green stems have whorls of 4-angled leaf-like branches going up them. The branches are grow either outward or nearly erect from below the stems sheathed nodes.

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Water Horsetail

Flower: Flowerless. Horsetails reproduce by spores. Fruit: Ovoid cones sit on top of the fertile main stems. The cones are technically known as 'strobili' and reach a maximum of 1.5 cm in length. Leaves: The green furrowed stems have 10 to 30 very shallow grooves. Whorls of leaf-like branches appear along the erect single main stem.

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Yellow Flag Iris

Flower: Large, showy and eye-catching. Bright yellow with 3 spreading outer petals and 3 inner petals twisting inwards, up to 10cm. Fruit: A 3-angled capsule, or seed pod, packed tight with numerous seeds, splitting open later in the year. Up to 8cm long. Leaves: Long, linear, sword-like leaves which emerge out from the ground. Grows in water or on wet ground in compact clumps.

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Lady's-mantle

Flower: Tiny petalless flowers clustered together loosely with 4 yellowish-green sepals and yellow anthers. Fruit: A small and insignificant, dry achene. Leaves: The pale green, long-stalked, scallop-shaped leaves are soft and hairy. The size of the leaves vary depending on the exact species.

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Arum Lily

Flower: Large and showy. White funnel-shaped tubular flower with a slit down one side. Yellow or orange spike called a spadix sits in the centre of the outer white sheath. Fruit: An oval, orange berry-like fruit, up to 1cm across. Leaves: Large, green, broadly oval, glossy leaves.

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