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Crow Garlic

Allium vineale

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Plant Profile

Flowering Months:
Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis)
Life Cycle:
Maximum Size:
60 centimetres tall
Fields, gardens, grassland, hedgerows, lawns, riverbanks, roadsides, rocky places, sand dunes, sea cliffs, seaside, towns, wasteland, waterside.

Purple, 6 petals
The stalked flowers usually consist of dark purple bulbils. Unlike the flowers of Sand Leek (Allium scorodoprasum), the stamens protrude from the flowers and the spathe only has a single valve. Insect pollinated.
Crow Garlic does not produce traditional fruits. Instead, it reproduces through bulbils and seeds. The bulbils, small aerial bulbs, develop on the flower head and can be dispersed to new locations, facilitating the plant's propagation. While not a fruit-bearing plant, Crow Garlic is valued for its edible bulbs and is known for its distinctive garlic flavor, making it a noteworthy component in culinary and foraging contexts. The seeds ripen in either August or September.
The leaves are waxy, tubular, hollow, linear and measure up to 4mm thick. Throughout the British Isles, Crow Garlic is most common in southern England. Perennial.
Crow Garlic emits a pungent and distinctive fragrance. When the leaves or bulbs are crushed, they release a strong garlic scent with aromatic qualities characteristic of the Allium genus. The fragrance is aromatic and can be recognized as a mild form of garlic, contributing to its culinary appeal. Additionally, the scent may be present in the air around areas where Crow Garlic is abundant, adding a unique olfactory element to its natural habitat.
Other Names:
Compact Onion, False Garlic, Field Garlic, Onion Grass, Stag's Garlic, Wild Garlic, Wild Onion.
Frequency (UK):

Similar Species

Other Information


Allium vineale, also known as wild garlic, field garlic, or onion grass, is a species of wild onion that is native to Europe, Asia, and North America. It is a perennial plant that typically grows from a bulb and produces a single stem with narrow, linear leaves and small, white, star-shaped flowers that are arranged in a compact umbel. The plant has a strong garlic smell when the leaves are crushed.

It is considered a weed by some, as it can be invasive in certain areas, and it commonly grows in fields, gardens, and along roadsides. It is hardy in USDA zones 3-9. The leaves and bulbs are edible, but they have a strong onion flavor, it is not commonly used in culinary as other onion species and it is often used as an ornamental plant in gardens instead. Some studies report it to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.


Crow garlic, also known as wild garlic or Allium vineale, is a plant species that belongs to the Allium genus, which includes onions, chives, and garlic. It is a bulbous perennial plant that is commonly found in meadows, pastures, and other open spaces throughout Europe, Asia, and North America.

Description and Habitat

Crow garlic is a hardy plant that can grow up to 60 centimeters in height. It has long, narrow, and cylindrical leaves that can grow up to 50 centimeters in length. The plant produces small white or pink flowers that bloom from June to July. After flowering, the plant produces small black seeds that are dispersed by wind and insects.

Crow garlic is a highly adaptable plant that can grow in a wide range of habitats, from wetlands and riverbanks to dry meadows and rocky hillsides. It is commonly found in disturbed areas such as abandoned fields, roadside ditches, and railway tracks. Crow garlic is considered an invasive species in some regions, as it can outcompete native plant species and reduce biodiversity.

Culinary Uses

Crow garlic has been used as a food source for centuries. The leaves, flowers, and bulbs of the plant are all edible and have a mild garlic flavor. The young leaves can be eaten raw in salads or cooked in soups, stews, and other dishes. The flowers can be used as a garnish or added to salads for their decorative value. The bulbs can be used in the same way as onions or garlic, and are often pickled or used to flavor vinegars.

Medicinal Properties

Crow garlic has a long history of medicinal use. It has been used to treat a wide range of ailments, including coughs, colds, and other respiratory conditions. The plant is also thought to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, and has been used to treat wounds and infections.

Recent research has suggested that crow garlic may have potential as a natural remedy for high blood pressure and other cardiovascular conditions. One study found that a compound found in the plant called S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide (SACS) can lower blood pressure and improve heart function in animal models. However, more research is needed to determine whether these effects are applicable to humans.

Growing and Harvesting

Crow garlic is a hardy plant that is easy to grow from seed or bulb. It prefers well-drained soil and full sun, but can also tolerate partial shade. The plant can be grown in containers or in the ground, and requires minimal care.

Crow garlic can be harvested in the spring or fall, depending on the desired use. The bulbs can be dug up and stored for later use, while the leaves and flowers can be harvested as needed. It is important to avoid harvesting crow garlic from areas that have been sprayed with pesticides or other chemicals, as the plant can absorb these toxins and become unsafe for consumption.

Benefits and Risks

In addition to its culinary and medicinal uses, crow garlic has several potential health benefits. It is rich in vitamins A and C, as well as minerals such as iron, magnesium, and calcium. Some studies have suggested that consuming crow garlic may help improve digestion, boost the immune system, and even have anti-cancer properties.

However, it is important to note that crow garlic may not be suitable for everyone. Like other members of the Allium family, it can cause digestive discomfort in some people, particularly when eaten raw. It may also interact with certain medications, including blood thinners and anticoagulants, so it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before using crow garlic for medicinal purposes.

In addition, as mentioned earlier, crow garlic can be invasive in some regions and may have negative effects on local ecosystems. It is important to be mindful of the potential environmental impact of growing or harvesting crow garlic, and to avoid planting it in areas where it could become a problem.

Cultural Significance

Crow garlic has played an important role in many cultures throughout history. It has been used in traditional medicine by indigenous peoples in North America, and has been a staple food in European and Asian cuisines for centuries.

In many cultures, crow garlic is also associated with folklore and superstition. In some parts of Europe, it was believed to protect against evil spirits and was hung in doorways and windows to ward off vampires and other supernatural beings. In other traditions, crow garlic was thought to bring good luck and was used in love potions and other spells.

Today, crow garlic continues to be celebrated for its unique flavor and potential health benefits. Whether used in the kitchen or for medicinal purposes, it is a versatile plant with a rich cultural history and a bright future ahead.

Conservation and Sustainability

As mentioned earlier, crow garlic can be invasive in some regions and may have negative effects on local ecosystems. In areas where it is considered an invasive species, efforts are being made to control its spread and limit its impact on native plant species.

In addition, there are concerns about the sustainability of harvesting crow garlic for food and medicinal purposes. Like many wild plants, it is important to practice responsible harvesting and ensure that populations are not depleted or harmed in the process. This can include harvesting only a portion of a plant, leaving some behind to regenerate, and avoiding harvesting in areas where the plant is scarce or endangered.

To ensure the sustainability of wild plants like crow garlic, it is also important to support efforts to conserve natural habitats and promote biodiversity. This can include supporting local conservation organizations, choosing sustainable and organic food products, and advocating for policies that protect wild plants and their ecosystems.


In conclusion, crow garlic is a versatile and valuable plant that has been used for centuries for food and medicinal purposes. While it has potential health benefits and a rich cultural history, it is important to be mindful of its potential environmental impact and practice responsible harvesting and consumption. By working to conserve and promote the sustainability of wild plants like crow garlic, we can continue to enjoy their benefits for generations to come.

30 Facts Concerning Crow Garlic

  1. Scientific Name: Crow Garlic is scientifically known as Allium vineale.
  2. Habitat: This plant is native to Europe and Asia but has become widespread in North America.
  3. Identification: It is often identified by its long, slender leaves and clusters of small, pink to white flowers.
  4. Edibility: All parts of Crow Garlic are edible, with a taste resembling garlic, making it a culinary ingredient.
  5. Bulb Formation: The plant produces small bulbs, and these bulbs can be used in cooking or replanted.
  6. Invasive Nature: Crow Garlic is considered invasive in some regions, as it can rapidly spread and outcompete native vegetation.
  7. Height: It typically grows to a height of 30-60 cm (12-24 inches).
  8. Leaves: The leaves are linear and keeled, giving them a distinct appearance.
  9. Flowering Season: Crow Garlic blooms in late spring to early summer, producing delicate flowers.
  10. Hollow Stems: The stems are usually hollow, a characteristic common to many Allium species.
  11. Wildlife Attraction: The flowers attract pollinators like bees and butterflies, contributing to local ecosystems.
  12. Culinary Uses: It can be used in salads, soups, and various dishes to add a mild garlic flavor.
  13. Medicinal Properties: Like other Allium species, Crow Garlic is believed to have medicinal properties, including potential cardiovascular benefits.
  14. Cultural Significance: Allium plants, including Crow Garlic, have cultural and historical significance in various societies.
  15. Growing Conditions: It thrives in a variety of soil types and is often found in disturbed areas.
  16. Weed Control: Crow Garlic can be challenging to control in agricultural settings due to its invasive nature.
  17. Perennial Nature: It is a perennial plant, meaning it can survive and regrow for several years.
  18. Propagation: Crow Garlic can spread through both seeds and bulb offsets.
  19. Aromatic Qualities: Crushing the leaves or bulbs releases a distinct garlic scent.
  20. Companion Planting: It is sometimes used in companion planting to deter pests from other crops.
  21. Drought Tolerance: Crow Garlic is relatively tolerant of dry conditions, making it adaptable to various environments.
  22. Cultural Control: Regular mowing or cutting can help control its spread in certain areas.
  23. Traditional Medicine: In some traditional medicine practices, extracts from Allium species are used for various health purposes.
  24. Floral Arrangements: The flowers of Crow Garlic can be used in floral arrangements for a unique touch.
  25. Folklore: Allium species often have folklore and superstitions associated with them in different cultures.
  26. Varieties: There are different varieties of Crow Garlic, each with its unique characteristics.
  27. Competition with Grasses: In grassy areas, Crow Garlic competes with grass species for nutrients and space.
  28. Bulbils: Reproduction can also occur through bulbils, small aerial bulbs that develop on the flower head.
  29. Human Consumption History: Historical records indicate that Crow Garlic has been consumed by humans for centuries.
  30. Environmental Impact: Understanding and managing the impact of Crow Garlic on ecosystems is crucial for conservation efforts.


Crow Garlic filmed at Hesketh Golf Course in Southport, Lancashire on the 15th July 2023.


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Distribution Map

Reproduced by kind permission of the BSBI.

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