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White Poplar

Populus alba

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Plant Profile

Flowering Months:
Salicaceae (Willow)
Deciduous tree
Life Cycle:
Maximum Size:
30 metres tall
Gardens, grassland, meadows, parks, riverbanks, waterside, woodland.

Red, no petals
Male and female catkins appear on separate trees. Males are red and females are yellowish-green.
The female flowers (catkins) develop into fluffy white seeds. The seeds are then shed in late summer.
A deciduous tree with leaves that are covered in a white downy or woolly hair. The 5-lobed, greyish-green leaves are whitish on their undersides and have irregularly toothed margins.
Other Names:
Abbey, Abele, Dutch Beech, Silver Poplar, Silverleaf Poplar.
Frequency (UK):

Similar Species

Other Information


Populus alba, also known as the white poplar, is a species of deciduous tree that is native to Europe and western Asia. It can grow up to 30 meters tall and has a broad, spreading crown. The leaves are large, and have a white, felted underside, which gives the tree its common name. The bark is smooth and white, and the tree produces catkins that contain both male and female flowers, which appear before the leaves in early spring. The tree is known for its fast growth and ability to tolerate a wide range of soil types. It is often used as a ornamental tree in parks and gardens, for stabilizing riverbanks, for timber and also for paper production.


White poplar, also known by its scientific name Populus alba, is a beautiful and fast-growing tree that belongs to the Populus genus of the Salicaceae family. Native to Europe and Western Asia, this tree has been introduced to North America, South Africa, and Australia. It is a deciduous tree, which means that it sheds its leaves annually.

The white poplar tree has a distinctive appearance. Its bark is smooth and pale gray or white, which gives it its name. The leaves of the tree are triangular and serrated, with a glossy green surface on the top and a soft, white surface on the underside. The tree produces catkins, which are small clusters of flowers that contain both male and female parts.

One of the most impressive features of the white poplar tree is its fast growth rate. It can grow up to 3 feet per year and reach a height of up to 100 feet in ideal conditions. This makes it a popular choice for landscaping projects, as it can quickly provide shade and add visual interest to a property.

The white poplar tree also has a number of practical uses. Its wood is lightweight and easy to work with, making it useful for making furniture, paper, and plywood. The tree is also a good source of biomass, which can be used as fuel for heating and electricity generation.

Aside from its practical uses, the white poplar tree also has a number of cultural and historical associations. In ancient Greek mythology, the white poplar was associated with the goddess Persephone, who was said to have turned herself into a white poplar tree in order to avoid the advances of the god Hades. The tree has also been used in traditional medicine for centuries, as it contains compounds that have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties.

However, it's worth noting that the white poplar tree can also be considered a weed in some areas. Due to its fast growth rate and ability to spread quickly, it can become invasive and outcompete native plant species. As such, it's important to consider the potential impact of planting a white poplar tree in your area before doing so.

White poplar trees are also known for their ability to thrive in a variety of environments. They can tolerate a wide range of soil types, from clay to sandy soils, and they can also grow in both wet and dry conditions. This adaptability has made them a popular choice for reforestation projects, as they can help stabilize soil and prevent erosion.

Another interesting feature of white poplar trees is their ability to regenerate from cuttings. This means that a new tree can be grown from a branch or stem of an existing tree, making it an easy way to propagate new trees without the need for seeds. This technique has been used for centuries in traditional medicine, where different parts of the tree, such as the bark or leaves, are used to treat a variety of ailments.

In addition to their practical uses, white poplar trees are also valued for their aesthetic appeal. Their distinctive bark and leaves, as well as their graceful shape, make them a popular choice for landscaping and ornamental purposes. They are often planted in parks, gardens, and along roadsides, where their fast growth rate and attractive appearance can be enjoyed by many.

Despite their many benefits, white poplar trees can also pose some challenges. They are susceptible to certain diseases and pests, such as leaf spot and aphids, which can affect their growth and health. They also have shallow root systems, which can make them prone to wind damage and uprooting in severe weather conditions.

In addition to its practical and aesthetic value, the white poplar tree has ecological significance as well. Its leaves provide food for a variety of insects, including caterpillars and beetles, which in turn serve as food for birds and other wildlife. The tree's shallow root system also helps to aerate and improve soil quality, which can benefit other plant species in the surrounding ecosystem.

White poplar trees have also been used in phytoremediation, a process that uses plants to remove contaminants from soil or water. The tree's roots can absorb and break down pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, and industrial chemicals, making it a useful tool in cleaning up contaminated sites.

Another interesting fact about white poplar trees is that they have been used in the production of aspirin. The bark of the tree contains a compound called salicin, which is similar in structure to acetylsalicylic acid, the active ingredient in aspirin. In ancient times, the bark was chewed to relieve pain and reduce fever, and it was later used to develop the modern-day pain reliever we know today.

Finally, the white poplar tree has played an important role in art and literature throughout history. It has been depicted in paintings by famous artists such as Vincent Van Gogh, and it has been referenced in poems and novels by writers like William Wordsworth and Jane Austen. Its striking appearance and rich cultural associations have made it a beloved and enduring symbol of nature's beauty and resilience.

One interesting aspect of white poplar trees is their role in mythology and folklore. In Greek mythology, the white poplar was associated with the goddess Persephone, who was the queen of the underworld and the goddess of spring growth. According to legend, Persephone was abducted by the god of the underworld, Hades, while she was gathering white poplar branches in a meadow. The tree was said to symbolize the transition between life and death, as it sheds its leaves in the fall and regenerates new growth in the spring.

In some Native American cultures, the white poplar tree is considered a sacred tree with healing powers. The tree's bark and leaves have been used to treat various ailments, including headaches, fever, and skin conditions. It was also believed that the tree's spirit could communicate with the spirit world and provide guidance and wisdom to those who sought it.

Finally, the white poplar tree has been the subject of scientific research in recent years, as scientists explore its potential uses in medicine and biotechnology. Studies have shown that the tree's bark and leaves contain compounds with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which could have potential applications in the treatment of cancer, heart disease, and other chronic illnesses. Researchers are also exploring the use of poplar trees in the production of biofuels and other renewable energy sources, as the tree's fast growth rate and ability to thrive in diverse environments make it an attractive candidate for sustainable energy production.

In conclusion, the white poplar tree is a fascinating and multifaceted species with a rich cultural and scientific history. Its adaptability, versatility, and many benefits make it an important part of our natural world and a symbol of resilience and renewal. As we continue to explore and appreciate the many facets of this remarkable tree, we can work together to ensure that it continues to thrive and provide value to future generations.


White Poplar filmed at Formby in Lancashire on the 8th May 2023.


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