Open the Advanced Search

Hare's-tail Cotton-grass

Eriophorum vaginatum

Please keep in mind that it is illegal to uproot a plant without the landowner's consent and care should be taken at all times not to damage wild plants. Wild plants should never be picked for pleasure and some plants are protected by law.
For more information please download the BSBI Code of Conduct PDF document.


Plant Profile

Flowering Months:
Cyperaceae (Sedge)
Also in this family:
American Galingale, Birdsfoot Sedge, Black Alpine Sedge, Black Bog-rush, Bladder Sedge, Bog Sedge, Bottle Sedge, Bristle Club-rush, Bristle Sedge, Broad-leaved Cotton-grass, Brown Beak-sedge, Brown Bog-rush, Chestnut Rush, Close-headed Alpine Sedge, Club Sedge, Common Club-rush, Common Cotton-grass, Common Sedge, Common Spike-rush, Curved Sedge, Deergrass, Dioecious Sedge, Distant Sedge, Divided Sedge, Dotted Sedge, Downy-fruited Sedge, Dwarf Sedge, Dwarf Spike-rush, Estuarine Sedge, False Fox Sedge, False Sedge, Few-flowered Sedge, Few-flowered Spike-rush, Fibrous Tussock Sedge, Fingered Sedge, Flat Sedge, Flea Sedge, Floating Club-rush, Gingerbread Sedge, Glaucous Sedge, Great Fen Sedge, Greater Pond Sedge, Greater Tussock Sedge, Green-ribbed Sedge, Grey Club-rush, Grey Sedge, Hair Sedge, Hairy Sedge, Haresfoot Sedge, Heath Sedge, Hop Sedge, Large Yellow Sedge, Lesser Pond Sedge, Lesser Tussock Sedge, Long-bracted Sedge, Many-stalked Spike-rush, Mountain Bog Sedge, Needle Spike-rush, Northern Deergrass, Northern Spike-rush, Oval Sedge, Pale Sedge, Pendulous Sedge, Perennial Sedge, Pill Sedge, Prickly Sedge, Remote Sedge, Rock Sedge, Round-headed Club-rush, Russet Sedge, Salt Sedge, Sand Sedge, Scorched Alpine Sedge, Sea Club-rush, Sheathed Sedge, Slender Club-rush, Slender Cotton-grass, Slender Sedge, Slender Spike-rush, Slender Tufted Sedge, Smooth-stalked Sedge, Soft-leaved Sedge, Spiked Sedge, Spring Sedge, Star Sedge, Starved Wood Sedge, Stiff Sedge, String Sedge, Sweet Galingale, Tall Bog Sedge, Tawny Sedge, Thin-spiked Wood Sedge, Triangular Club-rush, True Fox Sedge, Tufted Sedge, Water Sedge, White Beak-sedge, White Sedge, Wood Club-rush, Wood Sedge, Yellow Sedge
Life Cycle:
Maximum Size:
40 centimetres tall
Bogs, grassland, marshes, moorland, swamps, wetland.

White, no petals
Fluffy white flowers resembling balls of cotton wool which give the plant its name. Each plant bears a single flower emanating from the top of the stem, unlike Common Cotton-grass which has a multiple flowers emerging from the side of the stem. This flower grows in large patches and it's not unusual to find very distinctive white-dotted landscapes wherever this plant grows.
A brown seed called an achene, up to 3mm long.
Thin and spiky dark green grass-like leaves, growing up from around the base of the plant.
Other Names:
Sheathed Cottongrass, Sheathed Cottonsedge, Tawny Cottongrass, Tussock Cotton-grass.
Frequency (UK):
Occasionally seen  

Other Information


Eriophorum vaginatum, also known as sheathed cotton-grass or tawny cotton-grass, is a species of flowering plant in the family Cyperaceae. It is native to wetland habitats in northern latitudes in Europe, Asia, and North America. The plant is herbaceous and has a creeping rhizome. It produces dense, fluffy clusters of white flowers in the summer. Eriophorum vaginatum is an important food source for many species of wildlife, and it is also used medicinally and as a natural dye. It is similar to other species of Eriophorum, such as E. latifolium and E. angustifolium.


Hare's-tail Cotton-grass (Eriophorum vaginatum) is a species of flowering plant in the sedge family that is commonly found in wet, peaty soils of the Northern Hemisphere. Its scientific name "vaginatum" refers to its distinctive shape, which resembles the tuft of a hare's tail.

The plant is small in stature, typically reaching only 10 to 40 cm in height. Its leaves are narrow and grass-like, and the plant produces a single spike-like inflorescence that is made up of many tiny, fluffy white flowers. These flowers, which bloom from June to July, are an important food source for many species of pollinators and other insects.

The Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is well adapted to its wet and peaty habitat. Its extensive root system helps it to anchor itself in soft, waterlogged soils, while its leaves are covered in a waxy cuticle that helps to prevent water loss. Additionally, the plant is able to tolerate long periods of flooding, making it well suited to life in the bogs, fens, and wet meadows where it is commonly found.

One of the most notable features of the Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is its role in the formation of peatlands. As the plant grows, it accumulates dead plant material in the soil around it, which eventually forms peat. Peatlands are important ecosystems that provide habitat for many unique species of plants and animals, and they also play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle by storing large amounts of carbon in their peat deposits.

Despite its ecological importance, the Hare's-tail Cotton-grass and other peat-forming species are under threat from a number of human activities, including drainage and conversion of peatlands for agriculture and forestry. Peat extraction is also a significant threat, as it results in the removal of large quantities of carbon from the soil, which contributes to climate change.

To protect this species and the valuable peatlands it inhabits, it is important that we work to reduce the impact of human activities on these ecosystems.

Another important aspect of Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is its cultural significance. In many cultures, the fluffy white inflorescences of this plant have been used for a variety of purposes, from lining baskets and bedding to stuffing pillows and mattresses. In the past, the plant was also used as a source of fuel and construction material, as the dense peat formed by its growth was cut and dried for use as a fuel.

In addition to its practical uses, Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is also valued for its beauty. Its delicate white flowers and graceful habit make it a popular choice for landscaping and wildflower gardens, and it is often used to create naturalistic planting schemes in areas such as wet meadows, bogs, and fens.

It is important to note, however, that Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is a protected species in many countries and should not be harvested from the wild without permission. In order to ensure the survival of this plant and the peatlands it inhabits, it is recommended that gardeners use nursery-grown specimens rather than harvesting wild plants.

Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is a unique and valuable species that has played an important role in shaping the peatlands of the Northern Hemisphere. Its ecological, cultural, and ornamental significance make it an important plant to conserve and protect, and we should all take steps to ensure its continued survival for future generations to enjoy.

Another important aspect of Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is its relationship with other species. The plant is a keystone species in many wetland ecosystems, meaning that it plays a crucial role in shaping the overall structure and functioning of these systems. The plant's ability to store carbon in the form of peat, for example, has a major impact on the water quality and nutrient levels of the wetlands it inhabits.

Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is also an important habitat for a wide range of other species, including many types of insects, birds, and small mammals. For example, the plant provides cover and food for many species of butterflies and moths, while its inflorescences are a source of nectar for bees and other pollinators.

Additionally, Hare's-tail Cotton-grass plays a role in the carbon cycle, as the peat it forms is a major carbon sink. When peatlands are drained or otherwise disturbed, this carbon is released back into the atmosphere, contributing to global climate change. By preserving and protecting these ecosystems, we can help to maintain this important carbon sink and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

It is worth noting that Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is an indicator species, meaning that its presence or absence can be used to assess the overall health of wetland ecosystems. For example, the disappearance of Hare's-tail Cotton-grass from a wetland system may indicate that the ecosystem is becoming too dry or otherwise disturbed, and that action is needed to protect and restore it.

Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is a fascinating and important species that plays a crucial role in the functioning of wetland ecosystems. By protecting and conserving this species and the peatlands it inhabits, we can help to ensure the continued health and productivity of these valuable systems for generations to come.

It's also worth mentioning that Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is a resilient species that can persist and even thrive in disturbed or altered habitats. This makes it an excellent candidate for restoration and conservation efforts aimed at bringing degraded peatlands back to health.

For example, planting Hare's-tail Cotton-grass and other peat-forming species in areas that have been drained or otherwise disturbed can help to re-establish these ecosystems and restore the carbon sink function of the peat. Additionally, restoring peatlands can help to prevent soil erosion and reduce the risk of downstream flooding, as these ecosystems act as sponges, soaking up excess water and releasing it gradually.

In addition to its role in peatland restoration, Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is also of great interest to scientists and researchers, who are studying its ecology, genetics, and evolution. For example, researchers are studying the ways in which this species and other peat-forming plants have adapted to their wetland habitats, as well as the role they play in shaping the overall structure and functioning of these ecosystems.

Overall, Hare's-tail Cotton-grass is an important and fascinating species that is well worth learning more about. Whether you are a scientist, a gardener, or simply someone who appreciates the beauty and value of wetland ecosystems, this plant has much to offer, and it is an important species to conserve and protect for future generations.


Hare's-tail Cotton-grass filmed on Winter Hill, Lancashire, 7th June 2022.


Please remember to Like and Subscribe to the WildFlowerWeb YouTube channel at

Distribution Map

Reproduced by kind permission of the BSBI.

Click to open an Interactive Map