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Salt Sedge

Carex salina

Please keep in mind that it is illegal to uproot a plant without the landowner's consent and care should be taken at all times not to damage wild plants. Wild plants should never be picked for pleasure and some plants are protected by law.
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Plant Profile

Flowering Months:
Cyperaceae (Sedge)
Also in this family:
American Galingale, Birdsfoot Sedge, Black Alpine Sedge, Black Bog-rush, Bladder Sedge, Bog Sedge, Bottle Sedge, Bristle Club-rush, Bristle Sedge, Broad-leaved Cotton-grass, Brown Beak-sedge, Brown Bog-rush, Chestnut Rush, Close-headed Alpine Sedge, Club Sedge, Common Club-rush, Common Cotton-grass, Common Sedge, Common Spike-rush, Curved Sedge, Deergrass, Dioecious Sedge, Distant Sedge, Divided Sedge, Dotted Sedge, Downy-fruited Sedge, Dwarf Sedge, Dwarf Spike-rush, Estuarine Sedge, False Fox Sedge, False Sedge, Few-flowered Sedge, Few-flowered Spike-rush, Fibrous Tussock Sedge, Fingered Sedge, Flat Sedge, Flea Sedge, Floating Club-rush, Gingerbread Sedge, Glaucous Sedge, Great Fen Sedge, Greater Pond Sedge, Greater Tussock Sedge, Green-ribbed Sedge, Grey Club-rush, Grey Sedge, Hair Sedge, Hairy Sedge, Haresfoot Sedge, Hare's-tail Cotton-grass, Heath Sedge, Hop Sedge, Large Yellow Sedge, Lesser Pond Sedge, Lesser Tussock Sedge, Long-bracted Sedge, Many-stalked Spike-rush, Mountain Bog Sedge, Needle Spike-rush, Northern Deergrass, Northern Spike-rush, Oval Sedge, Pale Sedge, Pendulous Sedge, Perennial Sedge, Pill Sedge, Prickly Sedge, Remote Sedge, Rock Sedge, Round-headed Club-rush, Russet Sedge, Sand Sedge, Scorched Alpine Sedge, Sea Club-rush, Sheathed Sedge, Slender Club-rush, Slender Cotton-grass, Slender Sedge, Slender Spike-rush, Slender Tufted Sedge, Smooth-stalked Sedge, Soft-leaved Sedge, Spiked Sedge, Spring Sedge, Star Sedge, Starved Wood Sedge, Stiff Sedge, String Sedge, Sweet Galingale, Tall Bog Sedge, Tawny Sedge, Thin-spiked Wood Sedge, Triangular Club-rush, True Fox Sedge, Tufted Sedge, Water Sedge, White Beak-sedge, White Sedge, Wood Club-rush, Wood Sedge, Yellow Sedge
Life Cycle:
Maximum Size:
90 centimetres tall
Beaches, gardens, saltmarshes, seaside.

Brown, no petals
Brown flower spikes. Similar in appearance to Estuarine Sedge (Carex recta) but with unpointed glumes and upright spikes, as opposed to drooping spikes.
The fruit is a nutlet, known as an achene.
Recently discovered in West Scotland, this sedge has yellowish-green leaves and flat stems.
Other Names:
Saltmarsh Sedge.
Frequency (UK):
Rarely seen  

Similar Species

Other Information


Carex salina is a species of sedge that is native to coastal salt marshes and sandy beaches in North America. It is a perennial plant that can reach up to 3 feet tall and forms dense clumps of narrow, green leaves. The flowers are inconspicuous and are arranged in spikes on the stem. It is tolerant of salt spray and is often used in landscaping for coastal areas.


Salt sedge, also known as Carex salina, is a species of sedge that is adapted to grow in salty and brackish marshes and wetlands. This plant is native to the coasts of North America and is an important component of coastal ecosystems.

Physical Characteristics of Salt Sedge

Salt sedge is a perennial plant that can grow up to 3 feet tall. Its leaves are long, narrow, and taper to a point. The stem is triangular and can be smooth or slightly rough to the touch. The flowers of salt sedge are small and brown, and they are arranged in spikelets that are typically 1-2 inches long. Salt sedge is a rhizomatous plant, which means that it spreads by underground stems, allowing it to form dense stands in wetland areas.

Ecological Importance of Salt Sedge

Salt sedge plays an important ecological role in coastal wetland ecosystems. It is a pioneer species, meaning that it is one of the first plants to colonize newly formed marshes and wetlands. Salt sedge is well adapted to grow in areas with high salinity, and it can tolerate periodic flooding and fluctuating water levels. As such, salt sedge helps to stabilize soil and prevent erosion in coastal areas.

Salt sedge also provides important habitat for a variety of wildlife. The dense stands of salt sedge provide cover and nesting sites for birds and small mammals, and the rhizomes of the plant provide food for a variety of invertebrates and other small animals. Additionally, salt sedge helps to filter water and remove excess nutrients, which can improve water quality in coastal areas.

Cultural Significance of Salt Sedge

In addition to its ecological importance, salt sedge has cultural significance for many indigenous communities along the coasts of North America. In some cultures, salt sedge is used for medicinal purposes, such as treating skin ailments and digestive issues. The fibrous leaves of salt sedge are also used for weaving and basket-making, and the plant has been an important source of material for traditional crafts for centuries.

Threats to Salt Sedge

Despite its importance, salt sedge is threatened by a variety of human activities, including development, agriculture, and coastal erosion. As wetland areas are converted for human use, the habitat for salt sedge is lost, and populations of the plant can decline. Additionally, climate change and sea-level rise are expected to further degrade coastal wetlands and threaten the survival of salt sedge and other wetland species.

Conservation Efforts

Efforts to conserve salt sedge and its habitat are underway in many areas. In some cases, wetlands are being restored or protected through the use of conservation easements or other legal protections. Additionally, education and outreach efforts are aimed at raising awareness about the importance of wetland ecosystems and the need to protect them for the benefit of wildlife and people.

Salt sedge is an important species that plays a vital role in coastal wetland ecosystems. As we continue to develop and alter the coastlines of North America, it is important to remember the ecological and cultural significance of salt sedge and work to conserve this species and its habitat for future generations.

More Information

One of the key threats to salt sedge is the loss and degradation of wetland habitats due to human activities such as development and agriculture. In many areas, coastal wetlands are being drained or filled in to make way for housing developments, industrial sites, and other infrastructure. This not only destroys the habitat of salt sedge and other wetland species, but it also can lead to the loss of important ecosystem services, such as flood control and water filtration.

Another threat to salt sedge and other wetland species is the spread of invasive plant species. Invasive plants, such as phragmites and purple loosestrife, can outcompete salt sedge and other native wetland plants, leading to a loss of biodiversity and a decline in the health of wetland ecosystems.

Efforts to conserve salt sedge and its habitat are crucial for the long-term health of coastal wetland ecosystems. In addition to legal protections and restoration efforts, it is important to address the root causes of wetland loss and degradation, such as urbanization and industrialization. Land-use planning that takes into account the ecological and cultural importance of wetlands can help to ensure that these areas are protected for future generations.

Salt sedge is just one example of the many plant and animal species that are threatened by human activities. Conserving biodiversity and protecting the natural world is essential for the health and well-being of all species, including humans. By working to protect salt sedge and other wetland species, we can help to ensure the continued functioning of important coastal ecosystems and the many benefits they provide to people and wildlife alike.

In addition to its ecological and cultural importance, salt sedge has been the subject of scientific research in a variety of fields. For example, researchers have studied the role of salt sedge in carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in coastal wetland ecosystems. They have also examined the effects of climate change on salt sedge populations and the potential for salt sedge to be used as a bioindicator of environmental change.

Furthermore, salt sedge and other wetland plants have been found to be effective in removing excess nutrients and other pollutants from water, a process known as phytoremediation. This ability makes them useful in treating wastewater and other types of contaminated water.

Overall, salt sedge is a fascinating and important plant that plays a critical role in coastal wetland ecosystems. Its ability to thrive in high-salinity environments and provide important ecosystem services make it a valuable species for conservation and restoration efforts. By working to protect salt sedge and other wetland species, we can help to ensure the continued functioning of important coastal ecosystems and the many benefits they provide to people and wildlife alike.