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Soft Brome Grass

Bromus hordeaceus

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Plant Profile

Flowering Months:
Poaceae (Grass)
Also in this family:
Alpine Catstail, Alpine Foxtail, Alpine Meadow-grass, Annual Beard-grass, Annual Meadow-grass, Arrow Bamboo, Barren Brome Grass, Bearded Couch Grass, Bearded Fescue, Bermuda Grass, Black Bent, Black Grass, Blue Fescue, Blue Moor-grass, Bog Hair-grass, Borrer's Saltmarsh Grass, Bread Wheat, Bristle Bent, Brown Bent, Brown Sedge, Bulbous Foxtail, Bulbous Meadow-grass, California Brome Grass, Canary Grass, Carnation Sedge, Cocksfoot, Cockspur, Common Bent, Common Cord-grass, Common Millet, Common Reed, Common Saltmarsh Grass, Compact Brome Grass, Corn, Couch Grass, Creeping Bent, Creeping Soft-grass, Crested Dog's-tail, Crested Hair-grass, Cultivated Oat, Curved Hard Grass, Cut Grass, Dense Silky Bent, Downy Oat-grass, Drooping Brome Grass, Drooping Tor Grass, Dune Fescue, Early Hair-grass, Early Meadow-grass, Early Sand-grass, False Brome Grass, False Oat-grass, Fern Grass, Fine-leaved Sheep's Fescue, Flattened Meadow-grass, Floating Sweet-grass, Foxtail Barley, French Oat, Giant Fescue, Glaucous Meadow-grass, Great Brome Grass, Greater Quaking Grass, Grey Hair-grass, Hairy Brome Grass, Hairy Finger-grass, Hard Fescue, Hard Grass, Harestail Grass, Heath Grass, Holy Grass, Hybrid Marram Grass, Italian Rye Grass, Knotroot Bristlegrass, Lesser Hairy Brome Grass, Lesser Quaking Grass, Loose Silky Bent, Lyme Grass, Marram Grass, Marsh Foxtail, Mat Grass, Mat-grass Fescue, Meadow Barley, Meadow Fescue, Meadow Foxtail, Meadow Oat-grass, Mountain Melick, Narrow-leaved Meadow-grass, Narrow-leaved Small-reed, Neglected Couch Grass, Nit Grass, Orange Foxtail, Pampas Grass, Perennial Rye Grass, Plicate Sweet-grass, Purple Moor-grass, Purple Small-reed, Purple-stem Catstail, Quaking Grass, Ratstail Fescue, Red Fescue, Reed Canary Grass, Reed Sweet-grass, Reflexed Saltmarsh Grass, Rescue Grass, Rough Meadow-grass, Rush-leaved Fescue, Sand Catstail, Sand Couch Grass, Scandinavian Small-reed, Scottish Small-reed, Sea Barley, Sea Couch Grass, Sea Fern Grass, Sheep's Fescue, Silver Hair-grass, Six-rowed Barley, Slender Brome Grass, Small Cord-grass, Small Sweet-grass, Smaller Catstail, Smooth Brome Grass, Smooth Cord-grass, Smooth Finger-grass, Smooth Meadow-grass, Somerset Hair-grass, Sorghum, Spreading Meadow-grass, Squirreltail Fescue, Stiff Brome Grass, Stiff Saltmarsh Grass, Sweet Vernal Grass, Tall Fescue, Timothy Grass, Tor Grass, Tufted Hair-grass, Two-rowed Barley, Upright Brome Grass, Velvet Bent, Viviparous Fescue, Wall Barley, Wavy Hair-grass, Wavy Meadow-grass, Whorl Grass, Wild Oat, Wood Barley, Wood Fescue, Wood Meadow-grass, Wood Melick, Wood Millet, Yellow Oat-grass, Yorkshire Fog
Life Cycle:
Maximum Size:
1 metre tall
Fields, gardens, grassland, heathland, meadows, moorland, parks, roadsides, sand dunes, wasteland, woodland.

Green, no petals
In erect or drooping clusters. The normally hairy clusters are roundish and short-awned. The lemmas (outer scales of the seed head) have pale narrow margins.
Pale green seeds. Bromus (see Latin name) is derived from the Greek word for Oat, and 'Soft' refers to the seed head meaning that it feels soft to touch.
Long, dull green leaf blades with parallel veins. The leaf blades are hairy. Soft Brome is an annual grass.
Other Names:
Barley Brome, Blubber Grass, Bull Grass, Cheatgrass, Goose Grass, Lop Grass, Soft Brome, Soft Cheat, Soft Chess.
Frequency (UK):

Similar Species

Other Information


Bromus hordeaceus, also known as soft brome or cheatgrass, is a species of grass that is native to Europe and Asia but has been introduced to many other parts of the world. It is an annual grass that can grow up to 0.5-1 meter tall. It has flat, pointed leaf blades and a seedhead that is about 20-30 cm long, composed of several long, narrow spikes.

It is often found in disturbed areas such as roadsides, fields, gardens, and pastures, and is known to be an invasive weed in some regions. It is also known to outcompete and displace native plants in rangelands, reducing biodiversity and wildlife habitat. It is a productive, hardy, and fast-growing species that is well-adapted to a wide range of growing conditions. It can germinate and establish quickly and is able to outcompete other grasses and plants.

Control methods can include hand-pulling, mowing, tillage, and the use of herbicides. In some cases, beneficial microorganisms and fungal pathogens have also been used to manage the spread of this grass. Additionally, planting more aggressive and competitive native species can help to prevent Bromus hordeaceus from establishing and spreading. It is also used as a forage grass, feed grain, and cover crop.


Soft Brome Grass, scientifically known as Bromus hordeaceus, is a common grass species found in many parts of the world, including Europe, North America, and Asia. It is an annual or biennial grass that grows up to 3 feet tall, with long, narrow leaves that are typically light green in color. Soft Brome Grass is often considered a weed due to its ability to spread rapidly and take over fields and meadows.

Soft Brome Grass is adaptable to a wide range of soils and environmental conditions, which makes it a highly successful species. It is commonly found in disturbed areas such as agricultural fields, roadsides, and construction sites. It is also found in natural areas such as grasslands, prairies, and savannas.

One of the reasons why Soft Brome Grass is so successful is its ability to spread through its seeds. The seeds are dispersed by wind, animals, and water, and can remain viable in the soil for many years. This means that even if the grass is removed, the seeds can germinate and grow back. Soft Brome Grass can also spread through rhizomes, which are underground stems that produce new shoots and roots.

While Soft Brome Grass is often considered a weed, it does have some benefits. It can be used as a forage crop for livestock and wildlife, and it can also be used as a cover crop to help prevent erosion and improve soil quality. Soft Brome Grass is also used in ecological restoration projects to help restore degraded habitats.

However, Soft Brome Grass can also be problematic in some situations. It can outcompete native species and reduce biodiversity, and it can also interfere with crop production by competing with crops for resources such as water and nutrients. Soft Brome Grass can also be difficult to control, as it has a high tolerance for many herbicides and can quickly adapt to new conditions.

Soft Brome Grass is known for its ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. It can grow in both full sun and partial shade, and it can tolerate both wet and dry conditions. This makes it a highly successful species in many areas, as it can thrive even in challenging environments.

One of the ways in which Soft Brome Grass can be managed is through integrated weed management strategies. This involves using a combination of methods such as cultural, mechanical, and chemical control to reduce the impact of the weed. For example, planting cover crops or rotating crops can help reduce the spread of Soft Brome Grass, while mowing or grazing can help control its growth. In some cases, herbicides may also be used to help manage Soft Brome Grass, although it is important to use them carefully and responsibly to avoid harming other species.

Soft Brome Grass has also been studied for its potential use in bioenergy production. Its high biomass production and ability to grow in challenging conditions make it a promising candidate for biofuel production. However, more research is needed to fully explore its potential as a bioenergy crop.

In addition to its ecological and economic impacts, Soft Brome Grass has also played a role in human history. In Europe, it was once used as a grain crop and was a staple food for many people. Today, it is still used in some parts of the world as a food source for livestock and for human consumption in some traditional dishes.

Soft Brome Grass can also have important implications for wildlife. While it can compete with native plant species, it can also provide habitat and food for a variety of animal species. For example, the seeds of Soft Brome Grass are an important food source for some bird species, and the grass itself can provide cover and nesting sites. In some areas, Soft Brome Grass has even been planted intentionally to provide habitat for wildlife.

However, the impacts of Soft Brome Grass on wildlife can be complex and depend on factors such as the overall diversity of the ecosystem and the specific species present. In some cases, the spread of Soft Brome Grass can negatively impact native wildlife species by reducing the diversity of plant species and altering habitat conditions.

Another potential impact of Soft Brome Grass is its ability to exacerbate the effects of climate change. As a fast-growing and adaptable species, Soft Brome Grass can spread quickly in response to changing environmental conditions such as increased temperatures or changes in precipitation patterns. This can lead to further changes in the ecosystem, such as alterations in soil moisture levels or changes in carbon storage.

In order to address the potential impacts of Soft Brome Grass, it is important to take a holistic approach to ecosystem management. This may involve strategies such as restoring native plant communities, implementing targeted control measures, or developing alternative land use practices that promote sustainability and biodiversity.

Overall, Soft Brome Grass is a complex and dynamic species that has important ecological, economic, and cultural implications. While it can be challenging to manage and control, understanding its ecology and potential impacts can help inform more sustainable and effective management strategies.


Soft Brome Grass filmed around the Chorley area of Lancashire on the 14th June 2022 and the 15th/17th May 2023.


Music credits
Crisis - Scoring Action by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license.

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Distribution Map

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