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Eastern Groundsel

Senecio vernalis

Please keep in mind that it is illegal to uproot a plant without the landowner's consent and care should be taken at all times not to damage wild plants. Wild plants should never be picked for pleasure and some plants are protected by law.
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Plant Profile

Flowering Months:
Asteraceae (Daisy)
Also in this family:
Alpine Blue Sow-thistle, Alpine Cotula, Alpine Fleabane, Alpine Saw-wort, Annual Ragweed, Annual Sunflower, Argentine Fleabane, Autumn Hawkbit, Autumn Oxeye, Beaked Hawksbeard, Beggarticks, Bilbao Fleabane, Black Knapweed, Black-eyed Susan, Blanketflower, Blue Fleabane, Blue Globe-thistle, Bristly Oxtongue, Broad-leaved Cudweed, Broad-leaved Ragwort, Brown Knapweed, Butterbur, Buttonweed, Cabbage Thistle, Canadian Fleabane, Canadian Goldenrod, Carline Thistle, Chalk Knapweed, Chamois Ragwort, Changing Michaelmas Daisy, Chicory, Chinese Mugwort, Chinese Ragwort, Coltsfoot, Common Blue Sow-thistle, Common Cat's-ear, Common Cudweed, Common Daisy, Common Dandelion, Common Fleabane, Common Goldenrod, Common Groundsel, Common Michaelmas Daisy, Common Mugwort, Common Ragwort, Common Wormwood, Coneflower, Confused Michaelmas Daisy, Corn Chamomile, Corn Marigold, Cornflower, Cotton Thistle, Cottonweed, Creeping Thistle, Daisy Bush, Dwarf Cudweed, Dwarf Thistle, Early Goldenrod, Eastern Leopardsbane, Elecampane, English Hawkweed, Fen Ragwort, Feverfew, Field Fleawort, Field Wormwood, Fox and Cubs, French Tarragon, Gallant Soldier, Garden Lettuce, Giant Butterbur, Glabrous-headed Hawkweed, Glandular Globe-thistle, Glaucous Michaelmas Daisy, Globe Artichoke, Globe-thistle, Goat's Beard, Golden Ragwort, Golden Samphire, Goldilocks Aster, Grass-leaved Goldenrod, Great Lettuce, Greater Burdock, Greater Knapweed, Grey-headed Hawkweed, Guernsey Fleabane, Hairless Blue Sow-thistle, Hairless Leptinella, Hairy Michaelmas Daisy, Harpur Crewe's Leopardsbane, Hawkweed Oxtongue, Heath Cudweed, Heath Groundsel, Hemp Agrimony, Highland Cudweed, Hoary Mugwort, Hoary Ragwort, Hybrid Knapweed, Intermediate Burdock, Irish Fleabane, Jersey Cudweed, Jerusalem Artichoke, Lance-leaved Hawkweed, Lavender-cotton, Leafless Hawksbeard, Least Lettuce, Leopardplant, Leopardsbane, Leptinella, Lesser Burdock, Lesser Hawkbit, Lesser Sunflower, London Bur-marigold, Magellan Ragwort, Marsh Cudweed, Marsh Hawksbeard, Marsh Ragwort, Marsh Sow-thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Mexican Fleabane, Milk Thistle, Mountain Everlasting, Mouse-ear Hawkweed, Musk Thistle, Narrow-leaved Cudweed, Narrow-leaved Hawkweed, Narrow-leaved Michaelmas Daisy, Narrow-leaved Ragwort, New England Hawkweed, New Zealand Holly, Nipplewort, Nodding Bur-marigold, Northern Hawksbeard, Norwegian Mugwort, Oxeye Daisy, Oxford Ragwort, Pearly Everlasting, Perennial Cornflower, Perennial Ragweed, Perennial Sow-thistle, Perennial Sunflower, Pineapple Mayweed, Plantain-leaved Leopardsbane, Ploughman's Spikenard, Plymouth Thistle, Pontic Blue Sow-thistle, Pot Marigold, Prickly Lettuce, Prickly Sow-thistle, Purple Coltsfoot, Rayed Tansy, Red Star Thistle, Red-seeded Dandelion, Red-tipped Cudweed, Robin's Plantain, Roman Chamomile, Rough Cocklebur, Rough Hawkbit, Rough Hawksbeard, Russian Lettuce, Safflower, Salsify, Saw-wort, Scented Mayweed, Scentless Mayweed, Sea Aster, Sea Mayweed, Sea Wormwood, Seaside Daisy, Shaggy Mouse-ear Hawkweed, Shaggy Soldier, Shasta Daisy, Shetland Mouse-ear Hawkweed, Shrub Ragwort, Sicilian Chamomile, Silver Ragwort, Slender Mugwort, Slender Thistle, Small Cudweed, Small Fleabane, Smooth Cat's-ear, Smooth Hawksbeard, Smooth Sow-thistle, Sneezeweed, Sneezewort, Spear Thistle, Spotted Cat's-ear, Spotted Hawkweed, Sticky Groundsel, Stinking Chamomile, Stinking Hawksbeard, Tall Fleabane, Tall Mouse-ear Hawkweed, Tansy, Thin-leaved Sunflower, Trifid Bur-marigold, Tuberous Thistle, Tyneside Leopardplant, Viper's Grass, Wall Lettuce, Welsh Groundsel, Welted Thistle, White Butterbur, White Buttons, Willdenow's Leopardsbane, Winter Heliotrope, Wood Burdock, Wood Ragwort, Woody Fleabane, Woolly Thistle, Yarrow, Yellow Chamomile, Yellow Fox and Cubs, Yellow Oxeye, Yellow Star Thistle, Yellow Thistle, York Groundsel
Life Cycle:
Maximum Size:
20 centimetres tall
Fields, grassland, riverbanks, roadsides, wasteland.

Yellow, many petals
Yellow, daisy-like flowers.
The fruit is a yellow or light brown, oblong achene (seed) with a pappus of white hairs at the top.
Downy and lobed leaves with wavy edges. The leaves have serrated margins. They are alternate along the stems.
Other Names:
Early Groundsel, Spring Dwarf Ragwort, Spring Groundsel.
Frequency (UK):

Similar Species

Other Information


Senecio vernalis, also known as spring groundsel or early groundsel, is an annual or biennial herb that is native to Europe. It typically grows to a height of 20 cm, and has yellow flowers that bloom from March to May. The leaves are alternate, hairy and lobed or pinnatifid. The plant is typically found growing in waste ground, cultivated ground and on roadside verges. Similar to other Senecio species, it is considered as a weed in some places.


Eastern Groundsel, scientifically known as Senecio vernalis, is a wildflower native to eastern North America. It belongs to the Asteraceae family, which includes daisies and sunflowers. The plant is also commonly known as "spring dwarf ragwort" due to its small size and early blooming season.

Appearance and Habitat

Eastern Groundsel is a small, herbaceous plant that typically grows up to 8 inches in height. It has a basal rosette of dark green, lobed leaves and slender, branching stems. The stems are covered with fine hairs and bear small, yellow flower heads that bloom from March to May.

This wildflower is commonly found in dry or moist meadows, woodland edges, and rocky slopes. It is widespread throughout the eastern United States, from Maine to Georgia and westward to Oklahoma.

Uses and Benefits

Eastern Groundsel has several medicinal properties and has been used by traditional healers for centuries. The plant contains alkaloids, flavonoids, and other active compounds that are believed to have anti-inflammatory and diuretic effects. It has also been used to treat respiratory ailments such as asthma and bronchitis.

In addition to its medicinal uses, Eastern Groundsel is also an important food source for bees and other pollinators. The early blooming season of this wildflower makes it a valuable source of nectar and pollen when other flowers are not yet in bloom.

Conservation Status

Despite its ecological and medicinal significance, Eastern Groundsel is considered a threatened species in some states, including Maine and New York. The loss of habitat due to agricultural practices, land development, and invasive species is a major threat to the survival of this wildflower.

Conservation efforts are underway to protect and restore populations of Eastern Groundsel. These efforts include habitat restoration, seed collection and propagation, and education and outreach programs to raise awareness about the importance of preserving native plant species.

Eastern Groundsel is a valuable and ecologically significant wildflower that plays an important role in the ecosystems of eastern North America. Its medicinal properties and role as a food source for pollinators make it a valuable resource for both human and environmental health. As we continue to face threats to biodiversity and habitat loss, it is crucial to support efforts to conserve and protect native plant species like Eastern Groundsel.

More Information

Eastern Groundsel is a hardy plant that can adapt to a variety of environmental conditions, making it an important species for ecological restoration efforts. It is also commonly used in wildflower gardens and as a ground cover in landscaping due to its small size and attractive yellow flowers.

However, it's important to note that Eastern Groundsel can be toxic to livestock if consumed in large quantities. The plant contains alkaloids that can cause liver damage and other health issues in animals. Therefore, it's recommended to avoid planting it in areas where livestock may graze.

In traditional Native American medicine, Eastern Groundsel was used to treat a variety of ailments, including skin irritations, coughs, and rheumatism. The Cherokee people also used the plant to induce vomiting as a way to rid the body of toxins.

Eastern Groundsel is a fascinating and valuable plant species that deserves more attention and protection. By conserving and restoring populations of this wildflower, we can help to preserve the biodiversity and ecological health of our natural landscapes.

Eastern Groundsel is a versatile plant with a range of cultural and historical associations. In Appalachian folk medicine, it was used as a poultice to treat wounds and as a tea to alleviate fevers and coughs. In colonial times, the plant was known as "rattlesnake weed" due to the belief that it could cure snake bites.

In addition to its medicinal and ecological uses, Eastern Groundsel has cultural significance for Indigenous communities. The Cherokee people, for example, have traditionally used the plant in spiritual ceremonies and as a symbol of renewal and regeneration.

Despite its importance, Eastern Groundsel faces numerous threats to its survival. Habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation due to human activities such as land development, agriculture, and mining are some of the major threats facing this plant species.

Climate change is also a significant threat, as it can alter the timing of flowering and pollination, affecting the plant's ability to reproduce and adapt to changing environmental conditions.

To address these threats, conservation efforts are underway to protect and restore populations of Eastern Groundsel. This includes habitat restoration, seed banking, and educational programs aimed at raising awareness about the importance of native plant species and the need for conservation.

In conclusion, Eastern Groundsel is a valuable and versatile plant species with ecological, cultural, and medicinal significance. As we continue to face environmental challenges, it is crucial to support efforts to conserve and protect this plant and other native species for the benefit of both human and ecological health.

Distribution Map

Reproduced by kind permission of the BSBI.

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